Purified outer membranes of Serpulina hyodysenteriae contain cholesterol. (73/81)

We have isolated outer and inner membranes of Serpulina hyodysenteriae by using discontinuous sucrose density gradients. The outer and inner membrane fractions contained less than 1 and 2%, respectively, of the total NADH oxidase activity (soluble marker) in the cell lysate. Various membrane markers including lipooligosaccharide (LOS), the 16-kDa outer membrane lipoprotein (SmpA), and the C subunit of the F1F0 ATPase indicated that the lowest-density membrane fraction contained outer membranes while the high-density membrane fraction contained inner membranes and that both are essentially free of contamination by the periplasmic flagella, a major contaminant of membranes isolated by other techniques. The outer membrane fractions (rho = 1.10 g/cm3) contained 0.25 mg of protein/mg (dry weight), while the inner membrane samples (rho = 1.16 g/cm3) contained significantly more protein (0.55 mg of protein/mg [dry weight]). Lipid analysis revealed that the purified outer membranes contained cholesterol as a major component of the membrane lipids. Treatment of intact S. hyodysenteriae with different concentrations of digitonin, a steroid glycoside that interacts with cholesterol, indicated that the outer membrane could be selectively removed at concentrations as low as 0.125%.  (+info)

Sub-specific differentiation of intestinal spirochaete isolates by macrorestriction fragment profiling. (74/81)

Macrorestriction fragment profile analysis by PFGE was used to distinguish intestinal spirochaetes, some of which were isolated from cases of swine dysentery and intestinal spirochaetosis in humans, pigs, mice, chickens and dogs. Macrorestriction fragment profiles using SmaI and SacII restriction enzymes were produced and used in statistical analysis. This permitted the division of the isolates into two major clusters. One cluster contained isolates which were identified as Serpulina pilosicoli and the second cluster contained isolates identified as Serpulina hyodysenteriae by immunoblotting with species-specific mAbs. Both species contained sub-specific groups, although these rarely correlated with the source of the isolates. We conclude that PFGE is capable of sub-specific differentiation of intestinal spirochaetes, but that the current species contain a large variety of genotypes among which cross-species transmission may be feasible.  (+info)

Analysis of the lytic activity of the Serpulina hyodysenteriae hemolysin. (75/81)

The hemolysins of Serpulina hyodysenteriae are active at 27 to 40 degrees C and pH 3 to 9 and are unaffected by enzymatic inhibitors. Pore formation was demonstrated by the inhibition of hemolysis with molecules of 2.0 to 2.3 nm in diameter and the release of 86rubidium from erythrocytes without hemoglobin release after exposure to native hemolysin.  (+info)

Evidence for Serpulina hyodysenteriae being recombinant, with an epidemic population structure. (76/81)

The population structure of Serpulina hyodysenteriae was investigated using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. A total of 231 isolates were divided into 50 electrophoretic types (ETs), with a mean genetic diversity of 0.29 for the number of ETs and 0.23 for the number of isolates. Subsets of isolates from two Australian states (71 isolates from Victoria and 68 isolates from Queensland) exhibited as much genetic variation as the entire collection. The calculated index of association (IA) for the number of ETs (0.29 +/- 0.17) was not significantly different from zero, and hence provided evidence for the occurrence of significant genetic recombination accounting for the observed variation between strains. In contrast, the IA for the number of isolates (3.93 +/- 0.03) was significantly different from zero, with seven of the 50 ETs (ETs 4, 6, 13, 14, 20, 33 and 35) containing 51% of all the isolates. Even when multiple isolates from the same farm were removed from the analysis, the IA value for the number of isolates remained significantly greater than zero (IA 9.87 +/- 0.04), indicating that it was not biased by their inclusion. The results suggest that S. hyodysenteriae has an epidemic population structure.  (+info)

Identification of a linked set of genes in Serpulina hyodysenteriae (B204) predicted to encode closely related 39-kilodalton extracytoplasmic proteins. (77/81)

A tandem pair of nearly identical genes from Serpulina hyodysenteriae (B204) were cloned and sequenced. The full open reading frame of one gene and the partial open reading frame of the neighboring gene appear to encode secreted proteins which are homologous to, yet distinct from, the 39-kDa extracytoplasmic protein purified from the membrane fraction of S. hyodysenteriae. We have designated these newly identified genes vspA and vspB (for variable surface protein).  (+info)

Morphologic and temporal characterisation of lesions in an enhanced murine model of Serpulina hyodysenteriae infection. (78/81)

This laboratory has previously reported a murine model of Serpulina hyodysenteriae infection in which mice fed a defined diet, Teklad 85420 (TD), developed caecal lesions more consistently than mice fed a conventional rodent chow (CRC). The objectives of the current studies were to characterise and compare the time of onset of lesions, the morphological nature and severity of lesions and the extent of colonisation by S. hyodysenteriae in mice fed the two diets. In the first of two experiments, 50 C3H/HeJ and 50 C3H/HeOuJ mice were fed either TD or CRC and then half of each group was infected with S. hyodysenteriae. Mice (n = 5) from each group were killed and examined on days, 1, 2, 4, 9 or 17 after infection. Each mouse was examined grossly and microscopically and assigned lesion scores based on lesion severity. The second experiment was designed in an identical way to the first, but had slightly smaller group sizes (n=20). Mice (n=4) were killed for necropsy at the same five time points after infection and their caeca were homogenised and examined by quantitative bacteriology with media selective for S. hyodysenteriae. There were no differences in any finding due to mouse strain. Group lesion scores over the entire experimental period were significantly higher in mice fed TD (mean total lesion index = 13) than in mice fed CRC (mean total lesion index = 8.8). Lesions were also temporally distributed in a significantly different manner in that they appeared earlier (day 1) and persisted longer in the TD-fed mice in comparison to CRC-fed mice. Furthermore, lesions of equivalent severity from each treatment group presented identical microscopic features. Finally, quantitative bacteriological results indicated that there was no significant difference in the number of cfu of S. hyodysenteriae isolated from mice fed TD and those fed CRC. These results demonstrate that the characteristic severe lesions associated with S. hyodysenteriae infection in mice can occur 1 day after oral challenge in mice fed Teklad diet 85420. Bacteriological results further indicate that the enhancement of lesion formation in this model is not due to any significant effect of the diet on numbers of spirochaetes in the caeca of infected mice.  (+info)

Characterization of a haemolysin from Mycobacterium tuberculosis with homology to a virulence factor of Serpulina hyodysenteriae. (79/81)

Scrutiny of sequence data from the Mycobacterium leprae genome sequencing project identified the presence of a gene encoding a 268-amino-acid polypeptide which is highly similar to a pore-forming haemolysin/cytotoxin virulence determinant, TlyA, from the swine pathogen Serpulina hyodysenteriae. Using degenerate oligonucleotide primers based on the TlyA sequences, the Mycobacterium tuberculosis homologue was amplified and this product was used to obtain the clone and sequence a 2.5 kb fragment containing the whole M. tuberculosis tlyA gene. tlyA encodes a 267-amino-acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 28 kDa. TlyA homologues were identified by PCR in M. leprae, Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium bovis BCG, but appeared absent in Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium vaccae, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium phlei. The M. tuberculosis gene appeared to be the first gene in an operon containing at least two other genes. Introduction of the M. tuberculosis tlyA gene into M. smegmatis using a mycobacterial shuttle expression plasmid converted non-haemolytic cells into those exhibiting significant haemolytic activity. Similarly, inducible haemolytic activity was observed in sonicated bacteria when tlyA was expressed as a His6-tagged fusion protein in Escherichia coli. tlyA mRNA was detected in both M. tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG using RT-PCR, confirming that this gene is expressed in organisms cultured in vitro.  (+info)

Presence of 22- and 17-kDa proteins reacting with sera in mice experimentally infected with Brachyspira (Serpulina) hyodysenteriae. (80/81)

The antibodies to B. (S.)hyodysenteriae in experimentally infected mice were detected by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The reactions in MAT were serotype specific while those in ELISA were common to both strains. A further investigation with immunoblotting technique demonstrated that 22- and 17-kDa proteins reacted strongly with the sera. The proteins in ATCC 27164 strain strongly reacted with the serum from ATCC 31212 strain-infected mouse and vice versa. These proteins were sensitive to proteinase K.  (+info)