A species-specific periplasmic flagellar protein of Serpulina (Treponema) hyodysenteriae.
(57/81)We have previously reported that a 46-kDa protein present in an outer membrane protein preparation seemed to be a species-specific antigen of Serpulina hyodysenteriae (Z. S. Li, N. S. Jensen, M. Belanger, M.-C. L'Esperance, and M. Jacques, J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:2941-2947, 1992). The objective of this study was to further characterize this antigen. A Western blot (immunoblot) analysis and immunogold labeling with a monospecific antiserum against this protein confirmed that the protein was present in all S. hyodysenteriae reference strains but not in the nonpathogenic organism Serpulina innocens. The immunogold labeling results also indicated that the protein was associated with the periplasmic flagella of S. hyodysenteriae. N-terminal amino acid sequencing confirmed that the protein was in fact a periplasmic flagellar sheath protein. The molecular mass of this protein, first estimated to be 46 kDa by Western blotting, was determined to be 44 kDa when the protein was evaluated more precisely by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the protein was glycosylated, as determined by glycoprotein staining and also by N-glycosidase F treatment. Five other periplasmic flagellar proteins of S. hyodysenteriae, which may have been the core proteins and had molecular masses of 39, 35, 32, 30, and 29 kDa, were antigenically related and cross-reacted with the periplasmic flagellar proteins of S. innocens. Finally, serum from a pig experimentally infected with S. hyodysenteriae recognized the 44-kDa periplasmic flagellar sheath protein. Our results suggest that the 44-kDa periplasmic flagellar sheath protein of S. hyodysenteriae is a species-specific glycoprotein antigen. (+info)
Characterization of two DNA probes specific for Serpulina hyodysenteriae.
(58/81)Two DNA probes, one 1.1- and one 0.75-kb probe, specific for Serpulina hyodysenteriae were isolated from a genomic library generated from virulent S. hyodysenteriae 5380. These probes are highly specific and react with all S. hyodysenteriae strains tested. Under stringent conditions, the DNA probes did not react with the nonpathogenic species Serpulina innocens or with other species of enteric bacteria, including Escherichia coli. Both probes are able to detect S. hyodysenteriae in colony blot hybridizations, and when applied to fecal specimens, they can detect 10(4) S. hyodysenteriae cells in 0.1 g of seeded fecal matter. Both probes can detect S. hyodysenteriae in fecal specimens from swine with clinical signs of swine dysentery after experimental challenge and from swine from a herd with an acute outbreak of swine dysentery. These probes have application as a diagnostic tool in veterinary microbiology. (+info)
Molecular analysis of a flagellar core protein gene of Serpulina (Treponema) hyodysenteriae.
(59/81)The flaB2 gene encoding a protein located in the core of the periplasmic flagella of Serpulina hyodysenteriae was cloned and sequenced. The FlaB2 protein consists of 285 amino acids and has a calculated molecular mass of 31.1 kDa. Southern blot analysis indicated that at least one, and possibly two genes related to flaB2 are present in the genome of S. hyodysenteriae. Comparison of the amino acid sequence of FlaB2 to sequences present in data banks showed significant similarity with the core flagellins of other spirochaetes, in particular with a FlaB2 protein from Treponema phagedenis. (+info)
Human intestinal spirochetes are distinct from Serpulina hyodysenteriae.
(60/81)Twenty-nine intestinal spirochetes isolated from Australian aboriginal children and six strains from Italian adults (HRM1, -2, -4, -5, -7, and -14) were genetically examined at 15 enzyme loci by using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. Results were compared with those previously obtained for 188 porcine intestinal spirochetes. DNA from human strain HRM7 and porcine strain Serpulina hyodysenteriae P18A were also radioactively labeled and hybridized with DNA from 12 other human and porcine intestinal spirochetes. Both the multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and hybridization techniques demonstrated that the human spirochetes were not S. hyodysenteriae. They belonged to another distinct genetic group of spirochetes that included P43/6/78, the bacterium recovered from the first recorded case of porcine intestinal spirochetosis. Bacteria in this distinct group also differed from Serpulina spp. in possessing only four, five, or occasionally six axial filaments, being slightly thinner, and having more pointed ends. These findings add further weight to the possibility that human intestinal spirochetes may act as enteric pathogens. (+info)
Purification and characterization of NADH oxidase from Serpulina (Treponema) hyodysenteriae.
(61/81)NADH oxidase (EC 220.127.116.11) was purified from cell lysates of Serpulina (Treponema) hyodysenteriae B204 by differential ultracentrifugation, ammonium sulfate precipitation, and chromatography on anion-exchange, dye-ligand-affinity, and size-exclusion columns. Purified NADH oxidase had a specific activity 119-fold higher than that of cell lysates and migrated as a single band during denaturing gel electrophoresis (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis [SDS-PAGE]). The enzyme was a monomeric protein with an estimated molecular mass of 47 to 48 kDa, as determined by SDS-PAGE and size-exclusion chromatography. Optimum enzyme activity occurred in buffers with a pH between 5.5 and 7.0. In the presence of oxygen, beta-NADH but not alpha-NADH, alpha-NADPH, or beta-NADPH was rapidly oxidized by the enzyme (Km = 10 microM beta-NADH; Vmax = 110 mumol beta-NADH min-1 mg of protein-1). Oxygen was the only identified electron acceptor for the enzyme. On isoelectric focusing gels, the enzyme separated into three subforms, with isoelectric pH values of 5.25, 5.35, and 5.45. Purified NADH oxidase had a typical flavoprotein absorption spectrum, with peak absorbances at wavelengths of 274, 376, and 448 nm. Flavin adenine dinucleotide was identified as a cofactor and was noncovalently associated with the enzyme at a molar ratio of 1:1. Assays of the enzyme after various chemical treatments indicated that a flavin cofactor and a sulfhydryl group(s), but not a metal cofactor, were essential for activity. Hydrogen peroxide and superoxide were not yielded in significant amounts by the S. hyodysenteriae NADH oxidase, indirect evidence that the enzyme produces water from reduction of oxygen with NADH. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the NADH oxidase was determined to be MKVIVIGCHGAGTWAAK. In its biochemical properties, the NADH oxidase of S. hyodysenteriae resembles the NADH oxidase of another intestinal bacterium, Enterococcus faecalis. (+info)
Identification of a novel group of Serpulina hyodysenteriae isolates by using a lipopolysaccharide-specific monoclonal antibody.
(62/81)A monoclonal antibody to Serpulina hyodysenteriae 8930 was produced and was used to probe pronase-treated cell lysates of S. hyodysenteriae isolates in immunblots. The results showed that the monoclonal antibody was specific for only five closely related S. hyodysenteriae isolates: 8930, 5380, 70A, RMIT 88, and RMIT 97. (+info)
Pigs experimentally infected with Serpulina hyodysenteriae can be protected from developing swine dysentery by feeding them a highly digestible diet.
(63/81)Weaner pigs (n = 72) were fed 1 of 4 diets. These were based on either cooked rice and animal protein, cooked rice and lupin, wheat and lupin, or wheat and animal protein. Twenty-six of the pigs were slaughtered after 1 month. Those fed the highly digestible cooked rice and animal protein diet had drier colonic contents and faeces, lighter large intestines, and the contents of their large intestines had increased pH values and decreased total VFA concentrations. The other 46 were orally challenged with broth cultures of Serpulina hyodysenteriae, and were monitored for faecal excretion of the spirochaetes, and for the development of swine dysentery (SD). None of 18 pigs fed the cooked rice and animal protein diet developed colonic changes or disease, whereas most pigs on the other diets developed mucohaemorrhagic colitis and dysentery. The reduced fermentation that occurred in the large intestines of pigs fed cooked rice and animal protein was associated with a subsequent failure of colonization by S. hyodysenteriae, and resultant protection against SD. (+info)
The phylogeny of intestinal porcine spirochetes (Serpulina species) based on sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene.
(64/81)Four type or reference strains and twenty-two field strains of intestinal spirochetes isolated from Swedish pig herds were subjected to phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequences. Almost complete (>95%) 16S rRNA sequences were obtained by solid-phase DNA sequencing of in vitro-amplified rRNA genes. The genotypic patterns were compared with a previously proposed biochemical classification scheme, comprising beta-hemolysis, indole production, hippurate hydrolysis, and alpha-galactosidase, alpha-glucosidase, and beta-glucosidase activities. Comparison of the small-subunit rRNA sequences showed that the strains of the genus Serpulina were closely related. Phylogenetic trees were constructed, and three clusters were observed. This was also confirmed by signature nucleotide analysis of the serpulinas. The indole-producing strains, including the strains of S. hyodysenteriae and some weakly beta-hemolytic Serpulina strains, formed one cluster. A second cluster comprised weakly beta-hemolytic strains that showed beta-galactosidase activity but lacked indole production and hippurate-hydrolyzing capacity. The second cluster contained two subclusters with similar phenotypic profiles. A third cluster involved strains that possessed a hippurate-hydrolyzing capacity which was distinct from that of the former two clusters, because of 17 unique nucleotide positions of the 16S rRNA gene. Interestingly, the strains of this third cluster were found likely to have a 16S rRNA structure in the V2 region of the molecule different from that of the serpulinas belonging to the other clusters. As a consequence of these findings, we propose that the intestinal spirochetes of this phenotype (i.e., P43/6/78-like strains) should be regarded as a separate Serpulina species. Furthermore, this cluster was found to be by far the most homogeneous one. In conclusion, the biochemical classification of porcine intestinal spirochetes was comparable to that by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequences.. (+info)