Decreased susceptibility to tiamulin and valnemulin among Czech isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. (17/81)

The agar dilution method was used to investigate the sensitivity to pleuromutilins of 100 isolates of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolated from 63 pig farms between 1997 and 2001. In the period under investigation, MICs to both tiamulin and valnemulin increased, with differences between the periods 1997-98 and 1999-2001 being statistically significant (P < 0.001 for tiamulin and P < 0.0001 for valnemulin). Between 1997 and 2001, the MIC50 and MIC90 of tiamulin increased from 0.062 and 0.25 microg ml, respectively, to 1.0 and 4.0 microg ml. Valnemulin MIC50 and MIC90 were < or = 0.031 microg ml in 1997 and by 2001 were respectively, 2.0 and 8.0 microg ml. The increase in MICs of tiamulin and valnemulin demonstrated in this study reflect the intensity of pleuromutilin use in the treatment of swine dysentery in the Czech Republic.  (+info)

Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and other strongly beta-haemolytic and indole-positive spirochaetes isolated from mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). (18/81)

The aims of the current study were to collect intestinal spirochaetes (genus Brachyspira) from farmed and wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and to identify and classify those isolates that phenotypically resembled Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, an enteric pathogen of pigs. The isolation rate of Brachyspira spp. was high from both farmed (93 %) and wild mallards (78 %). In wild mallards, it appeared that Brachyspira spp. were more likely to be found in migratory birds (multivariate analysis: RR = 1.8, 95 % CI 1.1-3.1) than in mallards sampled in a public park. Pure cultures of putative B. hyodysenteriae were obtained from 22 birds. All five isolates from farmed mallards and ten randomly selected isolates with this phenotype were used for further studies. All isolates from farmed mallards and two of the isolates from wild mallards were PCR-positive for the tlyA gene of B. hyodysenteriae. Two isolates from farmed mallards were selected for pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. These isolates clustered with the type and reference strains of B. hyodysenteriae. 16S rDNA sequence analysis performed on 11 of the strains showed that they were all closely related to each other and to the B. hyodysenteriae-Brachyspira intermedia cluster. Three of the mallard isolates had 16S rDNA sequences that were identical to those of B. hyodysenteriae strains R1 and NIV-1 previously isolated from common rheas (Rhea americana). To conclude, the isolates from farmed mallards and two isolates from wild mallards were classified as B. hyodysenteriae based on the fact that they could not be differentiated by any of the applied methods from type, reference and field strains of B. hyodysenteriae. The remaining isolates could not be assigned irrefutably to any of the presently recognized Brachyspira species. These results point to a broader host spectrum of B. hyodysenteriae than is generally recognized, and to the presence in mallards of strongly beta-haemolytic and indole-producing spirochaetes that possess many, but not all, of the currently recognized characteristics of B. hyodysenteriae.  (+info)

Immunomagnetic separation of the intestinal spirochaetes Brachyspira pilosicoli and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae from porcine faeces. (19/81)

Porcine intestinal spirochaetes are fastidious anaerobic organisms and, as a consequence, it has been necessary to develop various protocols to enhance their isolation from or detection in faeces. Immunomagnetic separation (IMS) is a method developed recently to improve separation of target cells from mixed cell suspensions. The purpose of the present study was to compare the relative sensitivity of IMS for isolation of Brachyspira pilosicoli and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae with current routine diagnostic methods (culture on selective media and PCR) for detection of these micro-organisms in pig faeces. Neither direct nor indirect IMS methods enhanced the sensitivity of detection of either organism when performed with the recommended washings during sample processing. Performance of the IMS procedure without washing gave sensitivity at levels similar to direct culture onto selective medium. Further development of IMS techniques is required to improve isolation rates of Brachyspira species from faecal samples.  (+info)

Prevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Salmonella in swine herds. (20/81)

The prevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Salmonella spp. were investigated by multiplex PCR using fecal samples of pigs with diarrhea or a history of diarrhea. The overall herd prevalence of L. intracellularis, B. hyodysenteriae and Salmonella spp. were 46.5%, 37.2% and 51.1%, respectively. Also, the prevalence of L. intracellularis, B. hyodysenteriae and Salmonella spp. among all sampled pigs were 19.9%, 10.8% and 17.7%, respectively. Seventeen of 43 herds were positive with 2 enteric organisms, and 2 herds were positive with L. intracellularis, B. hyodysenteriae and Salmonella spp. simultaneously. It was notable that 11 of 12 herds with more than 2,000 pigs were affected with Salmonella spp., and that only 2 of 12 the herds were affected with B. hyodysenteriae. This study suggested that herds positive for L. intracellularis, B. hyodysenteriae and Salmonella spp. were distributed throughout Korea, although the relationship among other pathogens such as viral or parasitic ones and/or with metabolic disorders was not determined.  (+info)

Characterization of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates from Korea. (21/81)

This study was done to characterize diversity in 10 Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates in Korea. The isolates were compared with 14 well-characterized non-Korean strains of various Brachyspira species. All Korean isolates showed strong beta haemolysis and had blunt cell ends with 7-14 periplasmic flagella. They produced indole, and did not ferment fructose. They were alpha-glucosidase positive and alpha-galatosidase negative using the APIZYM kit. Using polyclonal antisera raised in rabbits against recognized serotypes, all isolates showed a strong reaction to B. hyodysenteriae antisera E, A and B. Using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) with 15 enzymes and 5 buffer systems, the Korean and non-Korean isolates were divided into 22 electrophoretic types (ETs) and 5 divisions (A, B, C, D and E). Division A corresponded to B. hyodysenteriae, B to B. innocens, C to B. intermedia, D to B. murdochii and E to B. pilosicoli. The 10 Korean isolates of B. hyodysenteriae were relatively diverse, being divided into 9 ETs within MLEE division A. They were all distinct from the non-Korean strains.  (+info)

Collateral effects of antibiotics: carbadox and metronidazole induce VSH-1 and facilitate gene transfer among Brachyspira hyodysenteriae strains. (22/81)

 (+info)

Genetic analysis of spirochete flagellin proteins and their involvement in motility, filament assembly, and flagellar morphology. (23/81)

 (+info)

Blood concentrations of the cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma during experimentally induced swine dysentery. (24/81)

 (+info)