Role of Rho and Rho kinase in the activation of volume-regulated anion channels in bovine endothelial cells.
1. We have studied the modulation of volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs) by the small GTPase Rho and by one of its targets, Rho kinase, in calf pulmonary artery endothelial (CPAE) cells. 2. RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis showed that both RhoA and Rho kinase are expressed in CPAE cells. 3. ICl,swell, the chloride current through VRACs, was activated by challenging CPAE cells with a 25 % hypotonic extracellular solution (HTS) or by intracellular perfusion with a pipette solution containing 100 microM GTPgammaS. 4. Pretreatment of CPAE cells with the Clostridium C2IN-C3 fusion toxin, which inactivates Rho by ADP ribosylation, significantly impaired the activation of ICl,swell in response to the HTS. The current density at +100 mV was 49 +/- 13 pA pF-1 (n = 17) in pretreated cells compared with 172 +/- 17 pA pF-1 (n = 21) in control cells. 5. The volume-independent activation of ICl,swell by intracellular perfusion with GTPgammaS was also impaired in C2IN-C3-pretreated cells (31 +/- 7 pA pF-1, n = 11) compared with non-treated cells (132 +/- 21 pA pF-1, n = 15). 6. Activation of ICl,swell was pertussis toxin (PTX) insensitive. 7. Y-27632, a blocker of Rho kinase, inhibited ICl,swell and delayed its activation. 8. Inhibition of Rho and of Rho kinase by the above-described treatments did not affect the extent of cell swelling in response to HTS. 9. These experiments provide strong evidence that the Rho-Rho kinase pathway is involved in the VRAC activation cascade. (+info)
Lymphocyte migration through brain endothelial cell monolayers involves signaling through endothelial ICAM-1 via a rho-dependent pathway.
Lymphocyte extravasation into the brain is mediated largely by the Ig superfamily molecule ICAM-1. Several lines of evidence indicate that at the tight vascular barriers of the central nervous system (CNS), endothelial cell (EC) ICAM-1 not only acts as a docking molecule for circulating lymphocytes, but is also involved in transducing signals to the EC. In this paper, we examine the signaling pathways in brain EC following Ab ligation of endothelial ICAM-1, which mimics adhesion of lymphocytes to CNS endothelia. ICAM-1 cross-linking results in a reorganization of the endothelial actin cytoskeleton to form stress fibers and activation of the small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein Rho. ICAM-1-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the actin-associated molecule cortactin and ICAM-1-mediated, Ag/IL-2-stimulated T lymphocyte migration through EC monolayers were inhibited following pretreatment of EC with cytochalasin D. Pretreatment of EC with C3 transferase, a specific inhibitor of Rho proteins, significantly inhibited the transmonolayer migration of T lymphocytes, endothelial Rho-GTP loading, and endothelial actin reorganization, without affecting either lymphocyte adhesion to EC or cortactin phosphorylation. These data show that brain vascular EC are actively involved in facilitating T lymphocyte migration through the tight blood-brain barrier of the CNS and that this process involves ICAM-1-stimulated rearrangement of the endothelial actin cytoskeleton and functional EC Rho proteins. (+info)
SNAP-25a and -25b isoforms are both expressed in insulin-secreting cells and can function in insulin secretion.
The tSNARE (the target-membrane soluble NSF-attachment protein receptor, where NSF is N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein) synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) is expressed in pancreatic B-cells and its cleavage by botulinum neurotoxin E (BoNT/E) abolishes stimulated secretion of insulin. In the nervous system, two SNAP-25 isoforms (a and b) have been described that are produced by alternative splicing. Here it is shown, using reverse transcriptase PCR, that messages for both SNAP-25 isoforms are expressed in primary pancreatic B and non-B cells as well as in insulin-secreting cell lines. After transfection, both isoforms can be detected at the plasma membrane as well as in an intracellular perinuclear region in the insulin-secreting cell line, HIT. To test for the functional role of the two isoforms in insulin secretion, mutant forms of SNAP-25a and b resistant against cleavage by BoNT/E were generated. Such mutant SNAP-25, when expressed in HIT cells, is not inactivated by BoNT/E and its ability to restore insulin secretion can thus be investigated. To obtain the toxin-resistant mutant isoforms, the sequence around the BoNT/E cleavage site (R176QIDRIM182) was changed to P176QIKRIT182. This is the sequence of the equivalent region of human SNAP-23 (P187-T194), which has been shown to be resistant to BoNT/E. The mutant SNAP-25 was resistant to BoNT/E in vitro and in vivo and both mutant isoforms were able to reconstitute insulin secretion from toxin-treated HIT cells. (+info)
Involvement of RhoA and its interaction with protein kinase C and Src in CCK-stimulated pancreatic acini.
We evaluated intracellular pathways responsible for the activation of the small GTP-binding protein Rho p21 in rat pancreatic acini. Intact acini were incubated with or without CCK and carbachol, and Triton X-100-soluble and crude microsomes were used for Western immunoblotting. When a RhoA-specific antibody was used, a single band at the location of 21 kDa was detected. CCK (10 pM-10 nM) and carbachol (0.1-100 microM) dose dependently increased the amount of immunodetectable RhoA with a peak increase occurring at 3 min. High-affinity CCK-A-receptor agonists JMV-180 and CCK-OPE (1-1,000 nM) did not increase the intensities of the RhoA band, suggesting that stimulation of RhoA is mediated by the low-affinity CCK-A receptor. Although an increase in RhoA did not require the presence of extracellular Ca2+, the intracellular Ca2+ chelator 1, 2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-AM abolished the appearance of the RhoA band in response to CCK and carbachol. The Gq protein inhibitor G protein antagonist-2A (10 microM) and the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U-73122 (10 microM) markedly reduced RhoA bands in response to CCK. The protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol ester (10-1,000 nM) dose dependently increased the intensities of the RhoA band, which were inhibited by the PKC inhibitor K-252a (1 microM). The pp60(c-src) inhibitor herbimycin A (6 microM) inhibited the RhoA band in response to CCK, whereas the calmodulin inhibitor W-7 (100 microM) and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin (6 microM) had no effect. RhoA was immunoprecipitated with Src, suggesting association of RhoA with Src. Increases in mass of this complex were observed with CCK stimulation. In permeabilized acini, the Rho inhibitor Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme dose dependently inhibited amylase secretion evoked by a Ca2+ concentration with an IC50 of C3 exoenzyme at 1 ng/ml. We concluded that the small GTP-binding protein RhoA p21 exists in pancreatic acini and appears to be involved in the mediation of pancreatic enzyme secretion evoked by CCK and carbachol. RhoA pathways are involved in the activation of PKC and Src cascades via Gq protein and PLC. (+info)
Bacterial toxins and the Rho GTP-binding protein: what microbes teach us about cell regulation.
In the present review activities of two bacterial toxins, Clostridium botulinum exoenzyme C3 and Escherichia coli CNF1, both acting on the GTP-binding protein Rho are analyzed. Proteins belonging to the Rho family regulate the actin cytoskeleton and act as molecular switches in a number of signal transduction pathways. C3 and CNF1 have opposite effects on Rho thus representing useful tools for studies on cell division, cell differentiation and apoptosis. (+info)
Rho-dependent and -independent tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, paxillin and p130Cas mediated by Ret kinase.
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) signals through a unique receptor system that includes Ret receptor tyrosine kinase and a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-linked cell surface protein. In the present study, we have identified several proteins in neuroblastoma cells that are phosphorylated on tyrosine in response to GDNF. The phosphorylated proteins include focal adhesion kinase (FAK), paxillin and Crk-associated substrate, p130Cas, all of which are known to be associated with focal adhesions. Of these, paxillin and p130Cas interacted with Crk proteins in GDNF-treated neuroblastoma cells. GDNF also induced reorganization of the actin cytoskelton. Tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK, paxillin and p130Cas was inhibited by cytochalasin D or two specific inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3' kinase (PI-3' kinase), wortmannin and LY294002, indicating that their tyrosine phosphorylation depends on the formation of actin stress fiber and activation of PI-3' kinase. In addition, phosphorylation of FAK but not of paxillin and p130Cas was markedly impaired by the Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme that specifically ADP-ribosylates and inactivates Rho. These results suggested the presence of Rho-dependent and -independent signaling pathways downstream of PI-3' kinase that mediate tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK, paxillin and p130Cas through Ret kinase. (+info)
Tetanus and botulinum neurotoxins: mechanism of action and therapeutic uses.
The clostridial neurotoxins responsible for tetanus and botulism are proteins consisting of three domains endowed with different functions: neurospecific binding, membrane translocation and proteolysis for specific components of the neuroexocytosis apparatus. Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) binds to the presynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction, is internalized and transported retroaxonally to the spinal cord. The spastic paralysis induced by the toxin is due to the blockade of neurotransmitter release from spinal inhibitory interneurons. In contrast, the seven serotypes of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) act at the periphery by inducing a flaccid paralysis due to the inhibition of acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction. TeNT and BoNT serotypes B, D, F and G cleave specifically at single but different peptide bonds, of the vesicle associated membrane protein (VAMP) synaptobrevin, a membrane protein of small synaptic vesicles (SSVs). BoNT types A, C and E cleave SNAP-25 at different sites located within the carboxyl-terminus, while BoNT type C additionally cleaves syntaxin. The remarkable specificity of BoNTs is exploited in the treatment of human diseases characterized by a hyperfunction of cholinergic terminals. (+info)
SNARE complex formation is triggered by Ca2+ and drives membrane fusion.
Neurotransmitter exocytosis, a process mediated by a core complex of syntaxin, SNAP-25, and VAMP (SNAREs), is inhibited by SNARE-cleaving neurotoxins. Botulinum neurotoxin E inhibition of norepinephrine release in permeabilized PC12 cells can be rescued by adding a 65 aa C-terminal fragment of SNAP-25 (S25-C). Mutations along the hydrophobic face of the S25-C helix result in SNARE complexes with different thermostabilities, and these mutants rescue exocytosis to different extents. Rescue depends on the continued presence of both S25-C and Ca2+ and correlates with complex formation. The data suggest that Ca2+ triggers S25-C binding to a low-affinity site, initiating trans-complex formation. Pairing of SNARE proteins on apposing membranes leads to bilayer fusion and results in a high-affinity cis-SNARE complex. (+info)