Trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy: inadequately managed with the syndromic approach.
(65/208)OBJECTIVE: To measure the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection and bacterial vaginosis (BV) among pregnant women in Botswana, and to evaluate the syndromic approach and alternative management strategies for these conditions in pregnancy. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 703 antenatal care attendees were interviewed and examined, and specimens were collected to identify TV, BV, Candida species, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Information on reproductive tract infections earlier in pregnancy was obtained from a structured interview and the antenatal record. FINDINGS: TV was found in 19% and BV in 38% of the attendees. Three-fourths of women with TV or BV were asymptomatic. Syndromic management according to the vaginal discharge algorithm would lead to substantial under-diagnosis and over-treatment of TV and BV. Signs of vaginal discharge were more predictive of the presence of these conditions than were symptoms. Among the 546 attendees on a repeat antenatal visit, 142 (26%) had been diagnosed with vaginal discharge earlier in their pregnancy--14 of them twice. In 143 cases, an attendee was diagnosed with vaginal discharge in the second or third trimester; however, metronidazole had been prescribed only 17 times (12%). CONCLUSION: Diagnosis and treatment of TV and BV among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa presents major challenges. Half the pregnant women in this study were diagnosed with TV or BV, but these conditions were not detected and treated during antenatal care with syndromic management. Also, health workers did not adhere to treatment guidelines. These results indicate that management guidelines for TV and BV in antenatal care should be revised. (+info)
Diminished mental- and physical function and lack of social support are associated with shorter survival in community dwelling older persons of Botswana.
(66/208)BACKGROUND: Mortality rates for older persons in Botswana have been unavailable and little is known of predictors of mortality in old age. This study may serve as a precursor for more detailed assessments.The objective was to assess diminished function and lack of social support as indicators of short term risk of death. METHODS: A national population based prospective survey was undertaken in Botswana; twelve rural areas and three urban centers were included.372 community-dwelling persons aged sixty years and over, were included; 265 were followed-up. Sixteen subjects were deceased at follow-up. Subjects were interviewed and clinically assessed at home. Measures of cognitive function, depression and physical function and sociodemographic information were collected. Subjects were followed-up at average 6.8 months after baseline. RESULTS: Overall mortality rate was 10.9 per 100 person years. Age-adjusted odds ratios (OR) for death during follow-up were; 4.2 (CI 1.4-12.5) and 3.6 (CI 1.0-12.7) for those with diminished physical- and cognitive function, respectively. Indicators of limited social support; household with only 1 or 2 persons and eating alone, yielded age adjusted ORs of 4.3 (CI 1.5-12.5) and 6.7 (CI 2.2-20), respectively, for death during follow-up. CONCLUSION: Older community dwelling persons with diminished cognitive- or physical function, solitary daily meals and living in a small household have a significantly increased risk of rapid deterioration and death. Health policy should include measures to strengthen informal support and expand formal service provisions to older persons with poor function and limited social networks in order to prevent premature deaths. (+info)
Infant morbidity, mortality, and breast milk immunologic profiles among breast-feeding HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women in Botswana.
(67/208)BACKGROUND: Infants of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women have high mortality, but the immunologic integrity and protection afforded by the breast milk of HIV-infected women is unknown. METHODS: We determined morbidity and mortality by 24 months among breast-fed infants of 588 HIV-infected and 137 HIV-uninfected women followed-up in a clinical trial in Botswana. A matched case-control study compared clinical, behavioral, and breast milk immunologic parameters among 120 HIV-infected women by infant outcome. Breast milk factors were also compared between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. RESULTS: Twenty-four-month mortality was 29.5% among HIV-infected infants, 6.7% among HIV-exposed uninfected infants, and 1.6% among HIV-unexposed infants. No differences were detected in breast milk immunologic profiles of HIV-infected women whose infants were either ill or well. Discontinuation of breast-feeding was the strongest predictor of illness (P<.001). Levels in breast milk of pathogen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgA to Haemophilus influenzae, Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and innate immune factors were not lower among HIV-infected women than among HIV-uninfected women. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality was higher among HIV-infected and HIV-exposed infants than among HIV-unexposed infants. However, the immunologic profiles of breast milk among HIV-infected women were intact, and discontinuation of breast-feeding was the primary risk for infant morbidity. Thus, the breast milk of HIV-infected women may confer protection against common infant pathogens. TRIAL REGISTRATION: (ClinicalTrials.Gov) identifiers: NCT00197691 and NCT00197652. (+info)
A seronegative case of HIV-1 subtype C infection in Botswana.
(68/208)We report the first case, to our knowledge, of antibody-negative human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype C infection, which was identified during screening for acute HIV-1 infection in Botswana. Results of tests for HIV-1 antibodies were consistently negative, including rapid and regular enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot. The nonrecombinant HIV-1 subtype C infection was confirmed by viral genotyping within the gag, pol, and env genes. The period between referral of the patient in a clinically stable condition and AIDS-related death was approximately 3 months. The reported case indicates the importance of studying the prevalence of seronegative HIV-1 infection in southern Africa, where subtype C predominates. (+info)
Detection of Rickettsia africae in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus ticks from the Republic of Botswana, South Africa.
(69/208)A total of 53 engorged adult ticks belonging to the species Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (N = 9), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (N = 27), Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (N = 9), Amblyomma hebraeum (N = 5), and Hyalomma marginatum turanicum (N = 3), were removed from oryx in Botswana (South Africa). They were tested for the presence of spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia and Anaplasma phagocytophilum using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Seventy-seven percent of R. decoloratus as well as twenty percent of A. hebraeum were positive for ompA, gltA and 16S rRNA SFG Rickettsia PCR assays. All nucleotide sequences were homologous to Rickettsia africae, the agent of African tick-bite fever (ATBF). None of the tested ticks was positive for 16S rRNA A. phagocytophilum PCR assays. These results suggest for the first time that R. decoloratus ticks may be reservoirs of R. africae, and support the ATBF risk in this area. (+info)
Antiretroviral treatment roll-out in a resource-constrained setting: capitalizing on nursing resources in Botswana.
(70/208)PROBLEM: As programmes to deliver antiretroviral therapy (ART) are implemented in resource-constrained settings, the problem becomes not how these programmes are going to be financed but who will be responsible for delivering and sustaining them. APPROACH: Physician-led models of HIV treatment and care that have evolved in industrialized countries are not replicable in settings with a high prevalence of HIV infection and limited access to medical staff. Therefore, models of care need to make better use of available human resources. LOCAL SETTING: Using Botswana as an example, we discuss how nurses are underutilized in long-term clinical management of patients requiring ART. RELEVANT CHANGES: We argue that for ART-delivery programmes to be sustainable, nurses will need to provide a level of clinical care for patients receiving this therapy, including prescribing ART and managing common adverse effects. LESSONS LEARNED: Practicalities involved in scaling up nurse-led models of ART delivery include overcoming political and professional barriers, identifying educational requirements, agreeing on the limitations of nursing practice, developing clear referral pathways between medical and nursing personnel, and developing mechanisms to monitor and supervise practice. Operational research is required to demonstrate that such models are safe, effective and sustainable. (+info)
Adherence to HAART therapy measured by electronic monitoring in newly diagnosed HIV patients in Botswana.
(71/208)AIMS: This pilot study was designed to evaluate the feasibility and benefits of electronic adherence monitoring of antiretroviral medications in HIV patients who recently started Highly Active Anti Retroviral Therapy (HAART) in Francistown, Botswana and to compare this with self-reporting. METHODS: Dosing histories were compiled electronically using Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) monitors to evaluate adherence to prescribed therapies. Thirty patients enrolled in the antiretroviral treatment program were monitored over 6 weeks. These patients were all antiretroviral (ARV) naive. After each visit (mean three times) to the pharmacy, the data compiled by the monitors were downloaded. Electronic monitoring of adherence was compared to patient self-reports of adherence. RESULTS: The mean individual medication adherence level measured with the electronic device was 85% (range 21-100%). The mean adherence level measured by means of self-reporting was 98% (range 70-100%). Medication prescribed on a once-a-day dose base was associated with a higher adherence level (97.9% for efavirenz) compared with a twice-a-day regimen (88.4% for Lamivudine/Zidovudine). CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible to assess treatment adherence of patients living in a low resource setting on HAART by using electronic monitors. Adherence, even in the early stages of treatment, appears to be insufficient in some patients and may be below the level required for continuous inhibition of viral replication. This approach may lead to improved targeting of counselling about their medication intake of such patients in order to prevent occurrence of resistant viral strains due to inadequate inhibition of viral replication. In this pilot study a significant difference between the data recorded through the electronic monitors and those provided by self-reporting was observed. (+info)
Developing a spatial-statistical model and map of historical malaria prevalence in Botswana using a staged variable selection procedure.
(72/208)BACKGROUND: Several malaria risk maps have been developed in recent years, many from the prevalence of infection data collated by the MARA (Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa) project, and using various environmental data sets as predictors. Variable selection is a major obstacle due to analytical problems caused by over-fitting, confounding and non-independence in the data. Testing and comparing every combination of explanatory variables in a Bayesian spatial framework remains unfeasible for most researchers. The aim of this study was to develop a malaria risk map using a systematic and practicable variable selection process for spatial analysis and mapping of historical malaria risk in Botswana. RESULTS: Of 50 potential explanatory variables from eight environmental data themes, 42 were significantly associated with malaria prevalence in univariate logistic regression and were ranked by the Akaike Information Criterion. Those correlated with higher-ranking relatives of the same environmental theme, were temporarily excluded. The remaining 14 candidates were ranked by selection frequency after running automated step-wise selection procedures on 1000 bootstrap samples drawn from the data. A non-spatial multiple-variable model was developed through step-wise inclusion in order of selection frequency. Previously excluded variables were then re-evaluated for inclusion, using further step-wise bootstrap procedures, resulting in the exclusion of another variable. Finally a Bayesian geo-statistical model using Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation was fitted to the data, resulting in a final model of three predictor variables, namely summer rainfall, mean annual temperature and altitude. Each was independently and significantly associated with malaria prevalence after allowing for spatial correlation. This model was used to predict malaria prevalence at unobserved locations, producing a smooth risk map for the whole country. CONCLUSION: We have produced a highly plausible and parsimonious model of historical malaria risk for Botswana from point-referenced data from a 1961/2 prevalence survey of malaria infection in 1-14 year old children. After starting with a list of 50 potential variables we ended with three highly plausible predictors, by applying a systematic and repeatable staged variable selection procedure that included a spatial analysis, which has application for other environmentally determined infectious diseases. All this was accomplished using general-purpose statistical software. (+info)