Examination of the enantiomeric distribution of certain monoterpene hydrocarbons in selected essential oils by automated solid-phase microextraction-chiral gas chromatography-mass selective detection. (9/168)

A viable approach for the determination of sources of essential oils based on automatic injection solid-phase microextraction-chiral-gas chromatography-mass selective detection is demonstrated. With no sample preparation, it is shown that the source of essential oils such as peppermint, spearmint, and rosemary can be easily distinguished. Short fiber exposure times of approximately 6 s to the headspace above submicroliter quantities of the selected oils are all that is required to obtain both the required sensitivity and resolution to afford analyses with excellent reproducibilities (relative standard deviation values consistently less than 5.0%).  (+info)

A beneficial aspect of a CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist: SR141716A is a potent inhibitor of macrophage infection by the intracellular pathogen Brucella suis. (10/168)

The psychoactive component of marijuana, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) suppresses different functions of immunocytes, including the antimicrobicidal activity of macrophages. The triggering of cannabinoid receptors of CB1 and CB2 subtypes present on leukocytes may account for these effects. We investigated the influence of specific CB1 or CB2 receptor antagonists (SR141716A and SR144528, respectively) and nonselective CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonists (CP55,940 or WIN 55212-2) on macrophage infection by Brucella suis, an intracellular gram-negative bacteria. None of the compounds tested affected bacterial phagocytosis. By contrast, the intracellular multiplication of Brucella was dose-dependently inhibited in cells treated with 10-500 nM SR141716A and 1 microM SR141716A-induced cells exerted a potent microbicidal effect against the bacteria. SR144528, CP55,940, or WIN 55212-2 did not affect (or slightly potentiated) the growth of phagocytized bacteria. However, CP55,940 or WIN 55212-2 reversed the SR141716A-mediated effect, which strongly suggested an involvement of macrophage CB1 receptors in the phenomenon. SR141716A was able to pre-activate macrophages and to trigger an activation signal that inhibited Brucella development. The participation of endogenous cannabinoid ligand(s) in Brucella infection was discussed. Finally, our data show that SR141716A up-regulates the antimicrobial properties of macrophages in vitro and might be a pharmaceutical compound useful for counteracting the development of intramacrophagic gram-negative bacteria.  (+info)

Effects of cannabinoid receptor agonist and antagonist ligands on production of inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 in endotoxemic mice. (11/168)

Previous studies have shown that mice primed with Corynebacterium parvum produce higher levels of inflammatory cytokines than unprimed mice upon challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Herein, we describe experiments in which two cannabinoid (CB) agonists, WIN 55212-2 [(R)-(+)-[2, 3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-[(4-morpholinyl)methyl]pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]1, 4-benzoxazin-6-yl](1-naphthyl)methanone) and HU-210 [(-)-11-hydroxy-delta(8) tetrahydrocannabinol-dimethylheptyl], were examined for their effects on LPS-induced cytokines in C. parvum-primed and unprimed mice. These agonists have been reported to bind selectively to the CB2 and CB1 receptor subtypes, respectively. WIN 55212-2 (3.1-50 mg/kg i.p.) and HU-210 (0.05-0.4 mg/kg i.p.) decreased serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-12 (IL-12) and increased IL-10 when administered to mice before LPS. The drugs also protected C. parvum mice (but not unprimed mice) against the lethal effects of LPS. The protection afforded to C. parvum mice could not be attributed to the higher levels of IL-10 present in these mice after agonist treatment. The WIN 55212-2- and HU-210-mediated changes in the responsiveness of mice to LPS were antagonized by SR141716A [N-(piperdin-1-yl)-5-(4-chloropheny)-1-(2, 4-dichloropheny)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide hydrochloride], a selective CB1 receptor antagonist, but not by SR144528 [N-[(1S)-endo-1,3,3-trimethylbicyclo[2.2. 1]heptan-2-yl]5-(4-choro-3-methylphenyl)-1-(4-methylbenzyl)p yrazole-3 -carboxamide], a selective antagonist at the CB2 receptor. Therefore, both CB agonists modulated LPS responses through the CB1 receptor. Surprisingly, SR141716A itself modulated cytokine responses in a manner identical with that of WIN 55212-2 and HU-210 when administered alone to mice. The agonist-like effects of SR141716A, which were more striking in unprimed than in primed mice, suggested that the antagonist also could function as a partial agonist at the CB1 receptor. Our findings indicate a role for the CB1 receptor subtype in cytokine modulation by CB ligands.  (+info)

Central and peripheral cannabinoid modulation of gastrointestinal transit in physiological states or during the diarrhoea induced by croton oil. (12/168)

We have evaluated the effect of cannabinoid drugs, administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) or intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) on upper gastrointestinal transit in control and in croton oil-treated mice. The cannabinoid agonists, WIN 55,212-2 (2-239 nmol mouse(-1)) and cannabinol (24-4027 nmol mouse(-1)), decreased while the CB(1) antagonist SR141716A (2-539 nmol mouse(-1)) increased transit in control mice. WIN 55,212-2, cannabinol and SR141716A had lower ED(50) values when administered i.c.v., than when administered i.p. The CB(2) antagonist SR144528 (52 nmol mouse(-1), i.p.) was without effect. During croton oil (0.01 ml mouse(-1), p.o.)-induced diarrhoea, the ED(50) values of i.p. -injected WIN 55,212-2 and cannabinol (but not SR141716A) were significantly decreased (compared to control mice). However, the ED(50) values of WIN 55,212-2 were similar after i.p. or i.c.v. administration. The inhibitory effects of WIN 55,212-2 and cannabinol were counteracted by SR141716A (16 nmol mouse(-1), i.p.) but not by SR144528 (52 nmol mouse(-1), i.p.) both in control and croton-oil treated mice. Ganglionic blockade with hexamethonium (69 nmol mouse(-1), i.p.) did not modify the inhibitory effect of i.p. -injected cannabinoid agonists either in control or in croton-oil treated mice. The lower ED(50) values of cannabinoid drugs after i.c.v. administration suggest a central (CB(1)) site of action. However, a peripheral site of action is suggested by the lack of effect of hexamethonium. In addition, croton oil-induced diarrhoea enhances the effect of cannabinoid agonists by a peripheral mechanism.  (+info)

Genomic and functional changes induced by the activation of the peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2 in the promyelocytic cells HL-60. Possible involvement of the CB2 receptor in cell differentiation. (13/168)

The function of the peripheral cannabinoid receptor (CB2), which is mainly expressed on hematopoietic cells, remains an enigma. In an attempt to decipher its role, we used Affymetrix DNA chips to investigate the gene expression profile of the promyelocytic cells HL-60 transfected with the CB2 receptor and activated with the cannabinoid agonist CP 55,940. Agonist exposure of these cells led to an activation of a mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade and a receptor desensitization, indicating a functional coupling of the transfected receptors. At the genomic level, activation of the CB2 receptors induced an up-regulation of nine genes involved in cytokine synthesis, regulation of transcription, and cell differentiation. A majority of them are under the control of the transcription factor NF-kappaB, whose nuclear translocation was demonstrated. Many features of the transcriptional events, reported here for the first time, appeared to be related to an activation of a cell differentiation program, suggesting that CB2 receptors could play a role in the initialization of cell maturation. Moreover, we showed that CB2-activated wild-type HL-60 cells developed properties usually found in host defense effector cells such as an enhanced release of chemotactic cytokines and an increased motility, characteristic of more mature cells of the granulocytic-monocytic lineage.  (+info)

In vitro and in vivo pharmacological characterization of JTE-907, a novel selective ligand for cannabinoid CB2 receptor. (14/168)

JTE-907 [N-(benzo[1,3]dioxol-5-ylmethyl)-7-methoxy-2-oxo-8-pentyloxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline -3-carboxamide] was evaluated in vitro and in vivo as a novel selective ligand for cannabinoid receptor of peripheral type (CB2). The compound binds with high affinity to human CB2 or mouse CB2 expressed on CHO cell membrane and to rat CB2 on splenocytes. The K(i) affinities for human, mouse, and rat CB2 were 35.9, 1.55, and 0.38 nM, respectively. The selectivity ratio for the CB2 receptors compared with central nervous type receptors (CB1) of human (expressed on CHO cells), and mouse and rat CB1 on cerebellum were 66, 684, and 2760, respectively. JTE-907 showed concentration-dependent increase of forskolin-stimulated cAMP production in CHO cells expressing human and mouse CB2 in vitro, i.e., JTE-907 behaved as an inverse agonist, which is in contrast to Win55212-2 that reduces cAMP as an agonist. JTE-907 dosed orally inhibited carrageenin-induced mouse paw edema dose dependently. The same in vivo effect was observed with other cannabinoid receptor ligands such as SR144528, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and Win55212-2. This is the first report that a CB2-selective inverse agonist, JTE-907, has an anti-inflammatory effect in vivo, and how the inverse agonist showed the same effect as Win55212-2 and Delta(9)-THC is discussed.  (+info)

Human platelets bind and degrade 2-arachidonoylglycerol, which activates these cells through a cannabinoid receptor. (15/168)

The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-Delta(4)Ach-Gro) activates human platelets in platelet-rich plasma at physiological concentrations. The activation was inhibited by selective antagonists of CB(1) and CB(2) cannabinoid receptors, but not by acetylsalicylic acid. Human platelets can metabolize 2-Delta(4)Ach-Gro by internalization through a high affinity transporter (K(m) = 300 +/- 30 nM, V(max) = 10 +/- 1 pmol.min(-1).mg protein(-1)), followed by hydrolysis by a fatty acid amide hydrolase (K(m) = 8 +/- 1 microM, V(max) = 400 +/- 50 pmol.min(-1).mg protein(-1)). The anandamide transport inhibitor AM404, and anandamide itself, were ineffective on 2-Delta(4)Ach-Gro uptake by platelets, whereas anandamide competitively inhibited 2-Delta(4)Ach-Gro hydrolysis (inhibition constant = 10 +/- 1 microM). Platelet activation by 2-Delta(4)Ach-Gro was paralleled by an increase of intracellular calcium and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate, and by a decrease of cyclic AMP. Moreover, treatment of preloaded platelet-rich plasma with 2-Delta(4)Ach-Gro induced an approximately threefold increase in [(3)H]2-Delta(4)Ach-Gro release, according to a CB receptor-dependent mechanism. On the other hand, ADP and collagen counteracted the activation of platelets by 2-Delta(4)Ach-Gro, whereas 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) enhanced and extended its effects. Remarkably, ADP and collagen also reduced [(3)H]2-Delta(4)Ach-Gro release from 2-Delta(4)Ach-Gro-activated platelets, whereas 5-hydroxytryptamine further increased it. These findings suggest a so far unnoticed interplay between the peripheral endocannabinoid system and physiological platelet agonists.  (+info)

Involvement of cannabinoids in the cardioprotection induced by lipopolysaccharide. (16/168)

We have examined the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the cardioprotection triggered by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Rats were treated with saline or LPS (10 microg x Kg(-1)). 24 h later, hearts were excised, retrogradely perfused, submitted to a low-flow ischaemia (0.6 ml x min(-1)) for 90 min and reperfused for 60 min. Some hearts were perfused with either SR 141716A (a cannabinoid CB(1), receptor antagonist 1 microM), SR 144528 (a CB2 receptor anagonist microM), NNLA (3 microM) or sodium nitroprusside (1 microM) 5 min before ischaemia and during the ischaemic period. The cardioprotective effects of LPS treatment, in terms of infarction and functional recovery, were not altered by the perfusion of SR 141716A but abolished by both SR 144528 and NNLA. Finally, SR 144528 abolished the beneficial effects of SNP perfusion. Our results suggest an involvement of endocannabinoids, acting through the CB2 receptors, in the cardioprotection triggered by LPS against myocardial ischaemia. This could be attributed to a relationship between cannabinoids and NO.  (+info)