Effects of a cannabinoid agonist on spinal nociceptive neurons in a rodent model of neuropathic pain. (57/168)

The effects of the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 on heat-evoked firing of spinal wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons were examined in a rodent model of neuropathic pain. Fifty-eight WDR neurons (1 cell/animal) were recorded from the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horns of rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI) and sham-operated controls. Relative to sham-operated controls, neurons recorded in CCI rats showed elevations in spontaneous firing, noxious heat-evoked responses, and afterdischarge firing as well as increases in receptive field size. WIN 55,212-2 (0.0625, 0.125, and 0.25 mg/kg, intravenous) dose-dependently suppressed heat-evoked activity and decreased the receptive field areas of dorsal horn WDR neurons in both nerve injured and control rats with a greater inhibition in CCI rats. At the dose of 0.125 mg/kg iv, WIN 55,212-2 reversed the hyperalgesia produced by nerve injury. The effect of intravenous administration of WIN 55,212-2 appears to be centrally mediated because administration of the drug directly to the ligated nerve did not suppress the heat-evoked neuronal activity in CCI rats. Pretreatment with the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonists SR141716A or AM251, but not the CB(2) antagonist SR144528, blocked the effects. These results provide a neural basis for reports of potent suppression by cannabinoids of the abnormal sensory responses that result from nerve injury.  (+info)

A novel role of cannabinoids: implication in the fever induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. (58/168)

There is continuing interest in elucidating the actions of drugs of abuse on the immune system and on infection. The present study investigated the effects of the cannabinoid (CB) receptor agonist aminoalkylindole, (+)-WIN 55,212-2 [(4,5-dihydro-2-methyl-4(4-morpholinylmethyl)-1-(1-naphthalenyl-carbonyl)-6H-pyrr olo[3,2,1ij]quinolin-6-one], on fever produced after injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, the best known and most frequently used experimental model. Intraperitoneal injection of LPS (50 mug/kg) induced a biphasic fever, with the first peak at 180 min and the second at 300 min postinjection. Pretreatment with a nonhypothermic dose of the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 (0.5-1.5 mg/kg i.p.) antagonized the LPS-induced fever. However, pretreatment with the inactive enantiomer WIN 55,212-3 [1.5 mg/kg i.p.; S-(-)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-[(morpholinyl)methyl]pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxaz inyl]-(1-naphthanlenyl)methanone mesylate] did not. The inhibitory effect of WIN 55,212-2 on LPS-induced fever was reversed by SR141716 [N-(piperdin-1-yl)-5-(4-chloropheny)-1-(2,4-dichloropheny)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3 -carboxamide hydrochloride], a selective CB1 receptor antagonist, but not by SR144528 (N-[(1S)-endo-1,3,3-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-yl]5-(4-choro-3-methylphenyl) -1-(4-methylbenzyl)pyrazole-3-carboxamide), a selective antagonist at the CB2 receptor. The present results show that cannabinoids interact with systemic bacterial LPS injection and indicate a role of the CB1 receptor subtype in the pathogenesis of LPS fever.  (+info)

Cannabidiol displays unexpectedly high potency as an antagonist of CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists in vitro. (59/168)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A nonpsychoactive constituent of the cannabis plant, cannabidiol has been demonstrated to have low affinity for both cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. We have shown previously that cannabidiol can enhance electrically evoked contractions of the mouse vas deferens, suggestive of inverse agonism. We have also shown that cannabidiol can antagonize cannabinoid receptor agonists in this tissue with a greater potency than we would expect from its poor affinity for cannabinoid receptors. This study aimed to investigate whether these properties of cannabidiol extend to CB1 receptors expressed in mouse brain and to human CB2 receptors that have been transfected into CHO cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The [35S]GTPS binding assay was used to determine both the efficacy of cannabidiol and the ability of cannabidiol to antagonize cannabinoid receptor agonists (CP55940 and R-(+)-WIN55212) at the mouse CB1 and the human CB2 receptor. KEY RESULTS: This paper reports firstly that cannabidiol displays inverse agonism at the human CB2 receptor. Secondly, we demonstrate that cannabidiol is a high potency antagonist of cannabinoid receptor agonists in mouse brain and in membranes from CHO cells transfected with human CB2 receptors. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: This study has provided the first evidence that cannabidiol can display CB2 receptor inverse agonism, an action that appears to be responsible for its antagonism of CP55940 at the human CB2 receptor. The ability of cannabidiol to behave as a CB2 receptor inverse agonist may contribute to its documented anti-inflammatory properties.  (+info)

Anandamide-mediated CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor--independent nitric oxide production in rabbit aortic endothelial cells. (60/168)

We have previously shown that the endocannabinoid anandamide and its metabolically stable analog (R)-methanandamide produce vasorelaxation in rabbit aortic ring preparations in an endothelium-dependent manner that could not be mimicked by other CB(1) cannabinoid receptor agonists (Am J Physiol 282: H2046-H2054, 2002). Here, we show that (R)-methanandamide and abnormal cannabidiol stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production in rabbit aortic endothelial cells (RAEC) in a dose-dependent manner but that other CB(1) and CB(2) receptor agonists, such as cis-3R-[2-hydroxy-4-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)phenyl]-trans-4R-3(3-hydroxypropyl)-1R-cy clohexanol (CP55940) and (R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-(4-morpholinylmethyl) pyrrolo-[1,2,3-d,e]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-1-naphthalenyl-methanone (WIN55212-2), failed to do so. CB(1) antagonists rimonabant [also known as SR141716; N-piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole- 3-carboxamide] and 6-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)benzo[b]-thien-3-yl][4-cyanophenyl]methanone (LY320135) and CB(2) antagonist N-[(1S)-endo-1,3,3,-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-yl]-5-(4-chloro-3-methylpheny l)-1-(4-methylbenzyl)-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (SR144528) failed to block (R)-methanandamide-mediated NO production in RAEC. However, anandamide receptor antagonist (-)-4-(3-3,4-trans-p-menthadien-(1,8)-yl)-orcinol (O-1918) blocked (R)-methanandamide-mediated NO production in RAEC. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses failed to detect the CB(1) receptor in RAEC, making this a good model to study non-CB(1) responses to anandamide. (R)-Methanandamide produced endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation via the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt signaling. Inhibition of G(i) signaling with pertussis toxin, or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity with 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one (LY294002), resulted in a decrease in (R)-methanandamide-induced Akt phosphorylation and NO production. Results from this study suggest that in RAEC, (R)-methanandamide acts on a novel non-CB(1) and non-CB(2) anandamide receptor and signals through G(i) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, leading to Akt activation, eNOS phosphorylation, and NO production.  (+info)

Ultrasonically induced degradation of 2-methylisoborneol and geosmin. (61/168)

2-Methylisoborneol (MIB) and geosmin (GSM) are taste and odor compounds produced by cyanobacteria in surface waters. While the strong odors and musty flavors of MIB and GSM are generally associated with poor water quality, the removal of these semi-volatile compounds presents a significant challenge to drinking water providers. Likewise in aquaculture, accumulation of these compounds in fish meat leads to quality problems and reduces marketability. Conventional water treatments are ineffective at removing low concentration of odor compounds. We report herein ultrasonic irradiation at 640 kHz leads to rapid degradation of MIB and GSM. While radical processes generally dominate during ultrasonic-induced degradation, pyrolysis appears to be responsible for a significant fraction of the observed degradation. Several pyrolytic products from MIB and GSM have been identified and degradation pathways are elucidated. The degradation of MIB and GSM follows the first-order kinetics and the rate constants are 0.07 and 0.12 min(-1), respectively. These results suggest ultrasonic irradiation maybe applicable as an effective method for removal of taint compounds from potable water supplies and fish farms.  (+info)

Species-specific in vitro pharmacological effects of the cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) selective ligand AM1241 and its resolved enantiomers. (62/168)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Racemic (R,S) AM1241 is a cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB(2))-selective aminoalkylindole with antinociceptive efficacy in animal pain models. The purpose of our studies was to provide a characterization of R,S-AM1241 and its resolved enantiomers in vitro and in vivo. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Competition binding assays were performed using membranes from cell lines expressing recombinant human, rat, and mouse CB(2) receptors. Inhibition of cAMP was assayed using intact CB(2)-expressing cells. A mouse model of visceral pain (para-phenylquinone, PPQ) and a rat model of acute inflammatory pain (carrageenan) were employed to characterize the compounds in vivo. KEY RESULTS: In cAMP inhibition assays, R,S-AM1241 was found to be an agonist at human CB(2), but an inverse agonist at rat and mouse CB(2) receptors. R-AM1241 bound with more than 40-fold higher affinity than S-AM1241, to all three CB(2) receptors and displayed a functional profile similar to that of the racemate. In contrast, S-AM1241 was an agonist at all three CB(2) receptors. In pain models, S-AM1241 was more efficacious than either R-AM1241 or the racemate. Antagonist blockade demonstrated that the in vivo effects of S-AM1241 were mediated by CB(2) receptors. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These findings constitute the first in vitro functional assessment of R,S-AM1241 at rodent CB(2) receptors and the first characterization of the AM1241 enantiomers in recombinant cell systems and in vivo. The greater antinociceptive efficacy of S-AM1241, the functional CB(2) agonist enantiomer of AM1241, is consistent with previous observations that CB(2) agonists are effective in relief of pain.  (+info)

Attenuation of allergic contact dermatitis through the endocannabinoid system. (63/168)

Allergic contact dermatitis affects about 5% of men and 11% of women in industrialized countries and is one of the leading causes for occupational diseases. In an animal model for cutaneous contact hypersensitivity, we show that mice lacking both known cannabinoid receptors display exacerbated allergic inflammation. In contrast, fatty acid amide hydrolase-deficient mice, which have increased levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide, displayed reduced allergic responses in the skin. Cannabinoid receptor antagonists exacerbated allergic inflammation, whereas receptor agonists attenuated inflammation. These results demonstrate a protective role of the endocannabinoid system in contact allergy in the skin and suggest a target for therapeutic intervention.  (+info)

The effect of the palmitoylethanolamide analogue, palmitoylallylamide (L-29) on pain behaviour in rodent models of neuropathy. (64/168)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cannabinoids are associated with analgesia in acute and chronic pain states. A spectrum of central cannabinoid (CB(1)) receptor-mediated motor and psychotropic side effects limit their therapeutic potential. Here, we investigate the analgesic effect of the palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) analogue, palmitoylallylamide (L-29), which via inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) may potentiate endocannabinoids thereby avoiding psychotropic side effects. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The in vivo analysis of the effect of L-29 on measures of pain behaviour in three rat models of neuropathic pain. KEY RESULTS: Systemically administered L-29 (10 mg kg(-1)) reduced hypersensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimuli in the partial sciatic nerve injury (PSNI) model of neuropathic pain; and mechanical hypersensitivity in a model of antiretroviral (ddC)-associated hypersensitivity and a model of varicella zoster virus (VZV)-associated hypersensitivity. The effects of L-29 were comparable to those of gabapentin (50 mg kg(-1)). The CB(1) receptor antagonist SR141716a (1 mg kg(-1)) and the CB(2) receptor antagonist SR144528 (1 mg kg(-1)) reduced the effect of L-29 on hypersensitivity in the PSNI and ddC models, but not in the VZV model. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha antagonist, MK-886 (1 mg kg(-1)), partially attenuated the effect of L-29 on hypersensitivity in the PSNI model. L-29 (10 mg kg(-1)) significantly attenuated thigmotactic behaviour in the open field arena without effect on locomotor activity. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: L-29 produces analgesia in a range of neuropathic pain models. This presents L-29 as a novel analgesic compound that may target the endogenous cannabinoid system while avoiding undesirable side effects associated with direct cannabinoid receptor activation.  (+info)