Vanilloid TRPV1 receptor mediates the antihyperalgesic effect of the nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, cannabidiol, in a rat model of acute inflammation. (41/168)

Cannabidiol (CBD), a nonpsychoactive marijuana constituent, was recently shown as an oral antihyperalgesic compound in a rat model of acute inflammation. We examined whether the CBD antihyperalgesic effect could be mediated by cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) or cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) and/or by transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1). Rats received CBD (10 mg kg(-1)) and the selective antagonists: SR141716 (N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazol e-3-carboxamide) for CB1, SR144528 (N-[(1S)-endo-1,3,3-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-yl]-5-(4-chloro-3-methylpheny l)-1-(4-methylbenzyl)pyrazole-3 carboxamide) for CB2 and capsazepine (CPZ) for TRPV1 receptors. The intraplantar injection of carrageenan in rats induced a time-dependent thermal hyperalgesia, which peaked at 3 h and decreased at the following times. CBD, administered 2 h after carrageenan, abolished the hyperalgesia to the thermal stimulus evaluated by plantar test. Neither SR141716 (0.5 mg kg(-1)) nor SR144528 (3 and 10 mg kg(-1)) modified the CBD-induced antihyperalgesia; CPZ partially at the lowest dose (2 mg kg(-1)) and fully at the highest dose (10 mg kg(-1)) reversed this effect. These results demonstrate that TRPV1 receptor could be a molecular target of the CBD antihyperalgesic action.  (+info)

2-arachidonoylglycerol, an endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand, induces the migration of EoL-1 human eosinophilic leukemia cells and human peripheral blood eosinophils. (42/168)

2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is an endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand. To date, two types of cannabinoid receptors have been identified: the CB1 receptor, abundantly expressed in the brain, and the CB2 receptor, expressed in various lymphoid tissues such as the spleen. The CB1 receptor has been assumed to play an important role in the regulation of synaptic transmission, whereas the physiological roles of the CB2 receptor remain obscure. In this study, we examined whether the CB2 receptor is present in human eosinophils and found that the CB2 receptor is expressed in human peripheral blood eosinophils. In contrast, human neutrophils do not contain a significant amount of the CB2 receptor. We then examined the effect of 2-AG on the motility of eosinophils. We found that 2-AG induces the migration of human eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells. The migration evoked by 2-AG was abolished in the presence of SR144528, a CB2 receptor antagonist, or by pretreatment of the cells with pertussis toxin, suggesting that the CB2 receptor and Gi/o are involved in the 2-AG-induced migration. The migration of EoL-1 cells induced by 2-AG was suggested to be a result of chemotaxis. In contrast to 2-AG, neither anandamide nor free arachidonic acid elicited the migration. Finally, we examined the effect of 2-AG on human peripheral blood eosinophils and neutrophils and found that 2-AG induces migration of eosinophils but not neutrophils. These results suggest that the CB2 receptor and its endogenous ligand 2-AG may be closely involved in allergic inflammation accompanied by the infiltration of eosinophils.  (+info)

Activation of cannabinoid CB2 receptors suppresses C-fiber responses and windup in spinal wide dynamic range neurons in the absence and presence of inflammation. (43/168)

Effects of the CB2-selective cannabinoid agonist AM1241 on activity evoked in spinal wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons by transcutaneous electrical stimulation were evaluated in urethane-anesthetized rats. Recordings were obtained in both the absence and the presence of carrageenan inflammation. AM1241, administered intravenously or locally in the paw, suppressed activity evoked by transcutaneous electrical stimulation during the development of inflammation. Decreases in WDR responses resulted from a suppression of C-fiber-mediated activity and windup. Abeta- and Adelta-fiber-mediated responses were not reliably altered. The AM1241-induced suppression of electrically evoked responses was blocked by the CB2 antagonist SR144528 but not by the CB1 antagonist SR141716A. AM1241 (33 microg/kg intraplantar [i.p.l.]), administered to the carrageenan-injected paw, suppressed activity evoked in WDR neurons relative to groups receiving vehicle in the same paw or AM1241 in the opposite (noninflamed) paw. The electrophysiological effects of AM1241 (330 microg/kg intravenous [i.v.]) were greater in rats receiving i.p.l. carrageenan compared with noninflamed rats receiving an i.p.l. injection of vehicle. AM1241 failed to alter the activity of purely nonnociceptive neurons recorded in the lumbar dorsal horn. Additionally, AM1241 (330 microg/kg i.v. and i.p.l.; 33 microg/kg i.p.l.) reduced the diameter of the carrageenan-injected paw. The AM1241-induced decrease in peripheral edema was blocked by the CB2 but not by the CB1 antagonist. These data demonstrate that activation of cannabinoid CB2 receptors is sufficient to suppress neuronal activity at central levels of processing in the spinal dorsal horn. Our findings are consistent with the ability of AM1241 to normalize nociceptive thresholds and produce antinociception in inflammatory pain states.  (+info)

Endocannabinoids acting at cannabinoid-1 receptors regulate cardiovascular function in hypertension. (44/168)

BACKGROUND: Endocannabinoids are novel lipid mediators with hypotensive and cardiodepressor activity. Here, we examined the possible role of the endocannabinergic system in cardiovascular regulation in hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS: In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1) antagonists increase blood pressure and left ventricular contractile performance. Conversely, preventing the degradation of the endocannabinoid anandamide by an inhibitor of fatty acid amidohydrolase reduces blood pressure, cardiac contractility, and vascular resistance to levels in normotensive rats, and these effects are prevented by CB1 antagonists. Similar changes are observed in 2 additional models of hypertension, whereas in normotensive control rats, the same parameters remain unaffected by any of these treatments. CB1 agonists lower blood pressure much more in SHR than in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats, and the expression of CB1 is increased in heart and aortic endothelium of SHR compared with Wistar-Kyoto rats. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that endocannabinoids tonically suppress cardiac contractility in hypertension and that enhancing the CB1-mediated cardiodepressor and vasodilator effects of endogenous anandamide by blocking its hydrolysis can normalize blood pressure. Targeting the endocannabinoid system offers novel therapeutic strategies in the treatment of hypertension.  (+info)

New perspectives in the studies on endocannabinoid and cannabis: 2-arachidonoylglycerol as a possible novel mediator of inflammation. (45/168)

2-Arachidonoylglycerol is an endogenous ligand for the cannabinoid receptors. To date, two types of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) have been identified. The CB1 receptor is assumed to be involved in the attenuation of synaptic transmission. On the other hand, the physiological roles of the CB2 receptor, which is abundantly expressed in several types of inflammatory cells and immunocompetent cells, have not yet been fully elucidated. Recently, we investigated in detail possible physiological roles of the CB2 receptor and 2-arachidonoylglycerol in inflammation. We found that 2-arachidonoylglycerol induces the activation of p42/44 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases and c-Jun N-terminal kinase; actin rearrangement and morphological changes; augmented production of chemokines in HL-60 cells; and the migration of HL-60 cells differentiated into macrophage-like cells, human monocytes, natural killer cells, and eosinophils. We also found that the level of 2-arachidonoylglycerol in mouse ear is markedly elevated following treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate, which induces acute inflammation. Notably, the inflammation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate was blocked by treatment with SR144528, a CB2-receptor antagonist. Similar results were obtained with an allergic inflammation model in mice. These results strongly suggest that 2-arachidonoylglycerol plays essential roles in the stimulation of various inflammatory reactions in vivo.  (+info)

Anti-inflammatory potential of CB1-mediated cAMP elevation in mast cells. (46/168)

Cannabinoids are broadly immunosuppressive, and anti-inflammatory properties have been reported for certain marijuana constituents and endogenously produced cannabinoids. The CB2 cannabinoid receptor is an established constituent of immune system cells, and we have recently established that the CB1 cannabinoid receptor is expressed in mast cells. In the present study, we sought to define a role for CB1 in mast cells and to identify the signalling pathways that may mediate the suppressive effects of CB1 ligation on mast cell activation. Our results show that CB1 and CB2 mediate diametrically opposed effects on cAMP levels in mast cells. The observed long-term stimulation of cAMP levels by the Galpha(i/o)-coupled CB1 is paradoxical, and our results indicate that it may be attributed to CB1-mediated transcriptional regulation of specific adenylate cyclase isoenzymes that exhibit superactivatable kinetics. Taken together, these results reveal the complexity in signalling of natively co-expressed cannabinoid receptors and suggest that some anti-inflammatory effects of CB1 ligands may be attributable to sustained cAMP elevation that, in turn, causes suppression of mast cell degranulation.  (+info)

Evidence for the involvement of the cannabinoid CB2 receptor and its endogenous ligand 2-arachidonoylglycerol in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced acute inflammation in mouse ear. (47/168)

2-Arachidonoylglycerol is an endogenous ligand for the cannabinoid receptors. Two types of cannabinoid receptors have been identified to date. The CB1 receptor is abundantly expressed in the brain, and assumed to be involved in the attenuation of neurotransmission. On the other hand, the physiological roles of the CB2 receptor, mainly expressed in several types of inflammatory cells and immunocompetent cells, have not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated possible pathophysiological roles of the CB2 receptor and 2-arachidonoylglycerol in acute inflammation in mouse ear induced by the topical application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. We found that the amount of 2-arachidonoylglycerol was markedly augmented in inflamed mouse ear. In contrast, the amount of anandamide, another endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand, did not change markedly. Importantly, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced ear swelling was blocked by treatment with SR144528, a CB2 receptor antagonist, suggesting that the CB2 receptor is involved in the swelling. On the other hand, the application of AM251, a CB1 receptor antagonist, exerted only a weak suppressive effect. The application of SR144528 also reduced the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced production of leukotriene B(4) and the infiltration of neutrophils in the mouse ear. Interestingly, the application of 2-arachidonoylglycerol to the mouse ear evoked swelling, which was abolished by treatment with SR144528. Nitric oxide was suggested to be involved in the ear swelling induced by 2-arachidonoylglycerol. These results suggest that the CB2 receptor and 2-arachidonoylglycerol play crucial stimulative roles during the course of inflammatory reactions.  (+info)

Regulation of bone mass, bone loss and osteoclast activity by cannabinoid receptors. (48/168)

Accelerated osteoclastic bone resorption has a central role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis and other bone diseases. Identifying the molecular pathways that regulate osteoclast activity provides a key to understanding the causes of these diseases and to the development of new treatments. Here we show that mice with inactivation of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors have increased bone mass and are protected from ovariectomy-induced bone loss. Pharmacological antagonists of CB1 and CB2 receptors prevented ovariectomy-induced bone loss in vivo and caused osteoclast inhibition in vitro by promoting osteoclast apoptosis and inhibiting production of several osteoclast survival factors. These studies show that the CB1 receptor has a role in the regulation of bone mass and ovariectomy-induced bone loss and that CB1- and CB2-selective cannabinoid receptor antagonists are a new class of osteoclast inhibitors that may be of value in the treatment of osteoporosis and other bone diseases.  (+info)