Nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for typing ruminant pestiviruses: bovine viral diarrhea viruses and border disease virus.
A nested reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was evaluated for differentiating reference bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains, BVDV from diagnostic accessions, modified-live virus (MLV) BVDV strains in bovine viral vaccines, and a reference border disease virus (BDV). The detection level of this assay was compared to viral infection in cell culture. The PCR assay was used to distinguish 3 ruminant pestiviruses, types 1 and 2 BVDV, and type 3 BDV. The consensus (first) PCR assay detected all 3 ruminant pestiviruses, a result of the shared sequence homology. The consensus PCR product was subjected to a second (nested) PCR which used type-specific primers. The nested PCR was able to differentiate the 3 ruminant pestiviruses. Viral stocks of BVDV were diluted 10-fold and processed for the 2-step PCR assay. The sensitivity of this 2-step PCR assay was compared to viral infectivity in cell culture based on identical volumes of the system tested (cell culture assay and processing for RNA). The RT-PCR type-specific assay differentiated BVDV laboratory reference strains (12), diagnostic laboratory isolates (15), 2 MLV BVDV vaccine strains, and a BDV strain. The 30 ruminant pestiviruses typed included: (1) 27 reference strains and diagnostic laboratory isolates; 18 cytopathic (CP) type 1 strains, 3 CP type 2 strains, 3 noncytopathic (NCP) type 1 strains, and 3 NCP type 2 strains; (2) 2 MLV strains, type 1; and (3) 1 CP BDV type 3. The PCR assay had a detection limit of 10 TCID50/0.025 mL of virus when 3 separate BVDV were tested. This 2 step RT-PCR assay would be useful for the typing of ruminant pestiviruses, particularly BVDV isolates from the diagnostic laboratory. (+info)
A RT-PCR assay for the rapid recognition of border disease virus.
A reverse transcription--polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was developed for the specific detection of border disease virus (BDV), using the primers PBD1 and PBD2 flanking a 225 bp DNA fragment, selected from the 5'noncoding region of the pestivirus genome. In tests on 70 pestiviruses it was shown to be BDV-specific. A closed, one-tube nested RT-PCR method employing general pestivirus outer primers (324 and 326), and the same BDV-specific inner primers (PBD1 and PBD2) in conjunction with a BDV-specific fluorogenic TaqMan probe also detected only BDV and was more sensitive. BDV-specific RT-PCR was used in combination with a PCR specific for bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 2 (BVDV2) to ascertain whether virus stocks contained mixtures of BDV and BVDV2. It was shown that the ovine pestivirus strains 175375 and 59386 were originally BDV, but after subculture had become contaminated with BVDV2. This explains a previously reported discrepancy in the genetic typing of 59386. Although the BDV-specific RT-PCR can also detect BDV in clinical samples, the assay is likely to be most useful for the rapid typing of laboratory pestivirus strains. (+info)
Experimental model of Border Disease Virus infection in lambs: comparative pathogenicity of pestiviruses isolated in France and Tunisia.
Pestiviruses have been isolated from live sheep pox Tunisian vaccines. Vaccination with these vaccines caused outbreaks of Border Disease in Tunisia. In order to study more precisely the pathogenicity of these isolates, three groups of eight four month old lambs from a pestivirus-free flock were infected by the intratracheal route with a French strain (AV) and two Tunisian isolates (SN3G and Lot21). Clinical, hematological, immunological and virological parameters were evaluated. The three groups developed mild fever and leucopaenia by day 3 to 6 post infection (pi). The differences in the weight curves were not significant. Viruses were isolated from the peripheral blood buffy coat cells by day 4 to 9 pi. Antibodies were present on day 16 pi following infection by the French strain and on day 21 pi with the Tunisian isolates. The results demonstrated that SN3G and Lot21 are almost similar to the French strain used as the reference strain. In field conditions, they could induce economical losses in naive flocks, alone or in association with other pathogens. (+info)
The envelope glycoprotein E2 is a determinant of cell culture tropism in ruminant pestiviruses.
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolates infect cultured Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells as efficiently as sheep kidney cells. In contrast, border disease virus (BDV) propagates poorly in MDBK cells but infects sheep cells very efficiently. The envelope glycoprotein E2 has been shown to be essential for virus infectivity. To explore the potential role of E2 in pestivirus host range in cell cultures, we engineered a chimeric BVDV with the E2 coding region from BDV. As expected, the BVDV-E2(bdv) chimera retained the ability of BDV to multiply in sheep cells but experienced a remarkable reduction in its ability to propagate and form plaques in MDBK, a phenotype that is characteristic of the E2 donor, BDV31 virus. Control chimeric BVDV bearing a type II E2 demonstrated that the heterologous E2 does not impair replication in MDBK or lamb cells. These results establish a role for E2 in determining the tropism of a pestivirus in cell culture. (+info)
Virulence, immunogenicity and vaccine properties of a novel chimeric pestivirus.
A chimeric pestivirus of border disease virus Gifhorn and bovine viral diarrhea virus CP7 (Meyers et al., 1996) was constructed. Virulence, immunogenicity and vaccine properties of the chimeric virus were studied in a vaccination-challenge experiment in pigs. The chimeric virus proved to be avirulent and neither chimeric virus nor viral RNA was detected in serum after vaccination. The safety of the vaccine was tested by horizontal transmission to sentinel pigs, which remained uninfected. The vaccine efficacy was examined by challenge infection with classical swine fever virus (CSFV) Eystrup. In 'challenge controls', the viral load of CSFV coincided with the development of pronounced clinical symptoms. In contrast, the vaccinated pigs showed transient and weak clinical signs. Analysis of the viral load in these pigs showed 1000-fold lower viral RNA levels compared to 'challenge controls' and horizontal transmission of challenge virus to sentinel pigs was not observed. (+info)
The use of attenuated classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strains as live vaccines is no longer allowed for the control of classical swine fever in Europe, due to the inability to differentiate between infected and vaccinated animals (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals; DIVA), except as emergency vaccines or as bait vaccines for wild boars. Thus, the establishment of a DIVA vaccine(s) is of pivotal importance for the control of this infectious disease. In this study, recombinant versions of the live-attenuated vaccine strain CSFV Riems were generated by replacing parts of the E2 gene with the corresponding sequence of border disease virus strain Gifhorn. Three cDNA clones were constructed: pRiems-ABC-Gif, pRiems-A-Gif and pRiems-BC-Gif. Infectious particles were obtained from clones pRiems-ABC-Gif and pRiems-BC-Gif only, whereas transfected RNA from clone pRiems-A-Gif behaved like a replicon. Based on its ability to be differentiated in vitro from wild-type CSFV by mAbs, vRiems-ABC-Gif was assessed for immunogenicity and protection against challenge infection in pigs. Before challenge, no CSFV-specific anti-E2 antibodies could be detected with commercial E2-blocking ELISAs in vRiems-ABC-Gif-vaccinated animals, whereas vRiems-vaccinated pigs developed high titres of anti-E2 antibodies, confirming the marker properties of this vaccine candidate. After oral vaccination, only partial protection against challenge infection was observed in the vRiems-ABC-Gif vaccinees, whereas all intramuscularly vaccinated animals and all vRiems-vaccinated animals were fully protected. These experiments suggest that the strategy of exchanging specific antigenic epitopes among pestiviruses is a promising tool for the development of new CSFV marker vaccines. (+info)
Detection of Border disease virus in fetuses, stillbirths, and newborn lambs from natural and experimental infections.
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antigen detection in blood or fetal fluids and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification in tissues for routine laboratory diagnosis of Border disease virus (BDV) infection. Samples from 67 fetuses, 6 stillbirths, and 11 lambs from 25 commercial flocks with suspicion of BDV abortion and 3 fetuses, 7 stillbirths, and 15 lambs obtained from an experimental infection with a local isolate (BDV genotype 4) were investigated. Presence of BDV was detected by RT-PCR in 7.9% of fetuses, 50% of stillbirths, and 50% of lambs from the commercial flocks analyzed, corresponding to 8 of the 25 farms (32%). A similar percentage of the lambs and stillbirths from the experimental infection were positive by RT-PCR of tissue samples (54.5%), and the highest positivity was detected in lymph node, thyroid gland, and kidney. The current study revealed that RT-PCR analysis of stillbirths and lambs with clinical symptoms is more suitable than the analysis of fetuses to confirm the presence of BDV in a flock. Pestiviral antigen was detected by antigen ELISA in a high proportion of fetuses (24/58) and stillbirths (3/4) from commercial flocks, but in lambs, the presence of colostral antibodies masked the detection of the antigen by ELISA. Nevertheless, in lambs from the experimental infection that were not fed colostrum, antigen ELISA was less efficient than RT-PCR in detecting viral presence in stillbirths and lambs. Antigen ELISA is therefore recommended for fetuses with advanced autolysis that can adversely affect RNA integrity. (+info)