The nitric oxide (NO) synthase family of enzymes generate NO from L-arginine, which acts as a biologic effector molecule in a broad number of settings. This report summarizes some of the current information regarding NO synthase structure-function, reaction mechanism, control of catalysis, and protein interactions. (+info)
[3H]diborane reduction of vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding proteins. Identification of a unique amino acid.
gamma-Carboxyglutamic acid has recently been identified as a component of the vitamin K-dependent region of bovine prothrombin (Nelsestuen, G. L., Zytkovicz, T. H., and Howard J. B. (1974) J. Biol Chem. 249, 6347-6350). The presence of this amino acid has been substantiated here by the reduction of vitamin K-dependent proteins with [3H]-DIBORANE. The reduction product of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid, 5,5'-[3H]dihydroxyleucine, was shown to be present in hydrolysates of reduced rat prothrombin, bovine prothrombin, and bovine factor X. The results are consistent with a minimum of 10 gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues in the nonthrombin-generating region of bovine prothrombin but no such residues in the thrombin precursor portion of prothrombin. It is concluded that amino acid analyses of [3H]diborane-reduced proteins provides a sensitive, qualitative method for the identification of proteins which contain gamma-carboxyglutamic acid and are vitamin K-dependent. (+info)
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors with a 4,5,6,7-tetrachlorophthalimide skeleton pendanted with a cycloalkyl or dicarba-closo-dodecaborane group.
Previous studies of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors derived from thalidomide revealed that 4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-N-alkylphthalimide derivatives are superior lead compounds. Structure-activity relationship studies indicated that a hydrophobic group at the N(2) position is mandatory for potent activity. Accordingly, we have designed and synthesized some 4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-N-cycloalkylphthalimide and 4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-N-dicarba-closo-dodecaborane derivatives. The prepared compounds exhibited potent alpha-glucosidase-inhibitory activity. Among them, 4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-N-cycloheptylphthalimide (9) showed the most potent activity, being approximately 30 times more active than the classical inhibitor, 1-deoxynojirimycin (1). (+info)
A synthesis of 3-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline and 2-phenyl-1,2,4,5-tetrahydro-3H-3-benzazepine via Pummerer-type cyclization: enhancing effect of boron trifluoride diethyl etherate on the cyclization.
A synthesis of 6,7-dimethoxy-3-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (14a) and 7,8-dimethoxy-2-phenyl-1,2,4,5-tetrahydro-3H-3-benzazepine (14b) was achieved via the cyclization of N-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl-1-phenyl-2-(phenylsulfinyl)ethylformamide (6a) and N-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl-1-phenyl-2-(phenylsulfinyl)-ethylformamide (6b) using the Pummerer reaction as a key step, respectively. The Pummerer reaction of 6a,b under usual conditions using trifluoroacetic anhydride yielded the vinyl sulfides (8a, b), non-cyclized products, as a major product. The cyclization proceeded when boron trifluoride diethyl etherate was used as an additive reagent, thus giving rise to the corresponding cyclized products (7a) and (7b) in moderate yields. We propose that the enhancing effect of the Lewis acid on the cyclization may be attributable to the involvement of a dicationic intermediate, sulfonium-carbenium dication (23). (+info)
In vitro antimycobacterial activities of 2'-monosubstituted isonicotinohydrazides and their cyanoborane adducts.
As a result of our search for new isoniazid derivatives with extended spectra of activity, we evaluated the in vitro antimycobacterial activities of isonicotinohydrazides (compounds 2) and their cyanoborane adducts (compounds 3), both obtained by the reaction of isonicotinoylhydrazones (compounds 1) with sodium cyanoborohydride. Most of the tested compounds displayed moderate to high activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, with MICs ranging from 0.2 to 12.5 microg/ml. In particular, some hydrazides showed activity similar to that of rifampin (MIC = 0.2 microg/ml) and rather low cytotoxicity, so that they were generally shown to possess high safety indices. In contrast, the coordination to a cyanoborane (BH(2)CN) group (compounds 3) in general brought about a decrease in antimycobacterial activity, while cytotoxicity increased. Interestingly, selected compounds 1 to 3, mostly hydrazides (compounds 2), were effective in killing M. tuberculosis growing within macrophages at concentrations in culture medium which were much lower than the corresponding MICs. These compounds also displayed good activity against drug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains. (+info)
Convection-enhanced delivery of boronated epidermal growth factor for molecular targeting of EGF receptor-positive gliomas.
Convection enhanced delivery (CED) is potentially a powerful method to improvethe targeting of macromolecules to the central nervous system by applying a pressure gradient to establish bulk flow through the brain interstitium during infusion. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate CED as a means to improve the intracerebral and intratumoral (i.t.) uptake of a heavily boronated macromolecule (dendrimer; BD) linked to epidermal growth factor (EGF) for neutron capture therapy in rats bearing a syngeneic epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) + glioma. Boronated EGF was radiolabeled with 125I and administered by CED at a rate of 0.33 micro l/min for 15, 30, and 60 min [infusion volumes (V(I)) of 5, 10, and 20 micro l, respectively], using a syringe pump connected to an indwelling cannula implanted into the right caudate nucleus of normal rats or i.t. in rats bearing either F98(EGFR) or F98 wild-type (F98(WT)) gliomas. After infusion, rats were euthanized, and their brains were removed and serially sectioned. The uptake and biodistribution of (125)I-boronated EGF in tumor or brain was studied by quantitative autoradiography and gamma-scintillation counting. The volume of distribution (V(d)) in brain was assessed using a computer interfaced image analysis system. After CED, the V(d) increased from 34.4 to 123.5 micro l with corresponding V(i) ranging from 5 to 20 micro l. The V(d) of BD-EGF in the brain was 64.8 +/- 13.4 micro l with CED (V(i) 10 micro ), and the V(d):V(i) ratio was 6.5 compared with a V(d) of 9.4 +/- 1.6 micro l and a V(d):V(i) ratio of 0.9 after direct intracerebral injection. As determined by quantitative autoradiography and gamma-scintillation counting at 24 h after CED, 47.4% of the injected dose per gram tissue (%ID/g) was localized in F98(EGFR) gliomas compared with 33.2%ID/g after direct i.t. injection and 12.3%ID/g in F98(WT) gliomas. On the basis of these observations, we have concluded that CED is more effective than i.t. injection as a way to deliver boronated EGF to EGFR (+) gliomas for boron neutron capture therapy. (+info)
Asymmetric borane reduction of prochiral ketone using chiral bis(alpha, alpha-diphenyl-2-pyrrolidinemethanol) carbonate.
Chiral bis(alpha, alpha-diphenyl-2-pyrrolidinemethanol) carbonate (DPP(2).H(2)CO(3)) is a useful asymmetric auxiliary for the asymmetric borane reduction of prochiral ketones. Chiral DPP(2).H(2)CO(3) is recoverable from the reaction and directly reusable for the reaction. The intermediate of KUR-1246, which we are developing as a new uterine relaxant, was synthesized using the methodology. (+info)
Diastereoselective solid-phase radical addition to oxime ether anchored to polymer support.
Stereocontrol in radical reactions of oxime ether anchored to polymer support was studied. Highly diastereoselective solid-phase radical reaction was achieved by using triethylborane and diethylzinc as a radical initiator at low reaction temperature, providing a novel method for the synthesis of the alpha-amino acid derivatives with excellent diastereoselectivities. (+info)