Halo femoral traction and sliding rods in the treatment of a neurologically compromised congenital scoliosis: technique. (1/614)

In severe congenital scoliosis, traction (whether with a halo or instrumental) is known to expose patients to neurologic complications. However, patients with restrictive lung disease may benefit from halo traction during the course of the surgical treatment. The goal of treatment of such deformities is, therefore, twofold: improvement of the respiratory function and avoidance of any neurologic complications. We report our technique to treat a 17-year-old girl with a multi-operated congenital scoliosis of 145 degrees and cor pulmonale. Pre-operative halo gravity traction improved her vital capacity from 560 c.c. to 700 c.c., but led to mild neurologic symptoms (clonus in the legs). To avoid further neurologic compromise, her first surgery consisted of posterior osteotomies and the implantation of two sliding rods connected to loose dominoes without any attempt at correction. Correction was then achieved over a 3-week period with a halofemoral traction. This allowed the two rods to slide while the neurologic status of the patient was monitored. Her definitive surgery consisted of locking the dominoes and the application of a contralateral rod. Satisfactory outcome was achieved for both correction of the deformity (without neurologic sequels) and improvement of her pulmonary function (1200 c.c. at 2 years). This technique using sliding rods in combination with halofemoral traction can be useful in high-risk, very severe congenital scoliosis.  (+info)

Safety of the limited open technique of bone-transfixing threaded-pin placement for external fixation of distal radial fractures: a cadaver study. (2/614)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the safety of threaded-pin placement for fixation of distal radial fractures using a limited open approach. DESIGN: A cadaver study. METHODS: Four-millimetre Schanz threaded pins were inserted into the radius and 3-mm screw pins into the second metacarpal of 20 cadaver arms. Each threaded pin was inserted in the dorsoradial oblique plane through a limited open, 5- to 10-mm longitudinal incision. Open exploration of the threaded-pin sites was then carried out. OUTCOME MEASURES: Injury to nerves, muscles and tendons and the proximity of these structures to the threaded pins. RESULTS: There were no injuries to the extensor tendons, superficial radial or lateral antebrachial nerves of the forearm, or to the soft tissues overlying the metacarpal. The lateral antebrachial nerve was the closest nerve to the radial pins and a branch of the superficial radial nerve was closest to the metacarpal pins. The superficial radial nerve was not close to the radial pins. CONCLUSION: Limited open threaded-pin fixation of distal radial fractures in the dorsolateral plane appears to be safe.  (+info)

Mandibular subluxation for distal internal carotid exposure: technical considerations. (3/614)

PURPOSE: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has become one of the most commonly performed vascular procedures, because of the beneficial outcome it has when compared with medical therapy alone and because of the anatomic accessibility of the artery. In cases of distal carotid occlusive disease, high cervical carotid bifurcation, and some reoperative cases, access to the distal internal carotid artery may limit surgical exposure and increase the incidence of cranial nerve palsies. Mandibular subluxation (MS) is recommended to provide additional space in a critically small operative field. We report our experience to determine and illustrate a preferred method of MS. METHODS: Techniques for MS were selected based on the presence or absence of adequate dental stability and periodontal disease. All patients received general anesthesia with nasotracheal intubation before subluxation. Illustrations are provided to emphasize technical considerations in performing MS in 10 patients (nine men and one woman) who required MS as an adjunct to CEA (less than 1% of primary CEAs). Patients were symptomatic (n = 7) or asymptomatic (n = 3) and had high-grade stenoses demonstrated by means of preoperative arteriography. RESULTS: Subluxation was performed and stabilization was maintained by means of: Ivy loop/circumdental wiring of mandibular and maxillary bicuspids/cuspids (n = 7); Steinmann pins with wiring (n = 1); mandibular/maxillary arch bar wiring (n = 1); and superior circumdental to circummandibular wires (n = 1). MS was not associated with mandibular dislocation in any patient. No postoperative cranial nerve palsies were observed. Three patients experienced transient temporomandibular joint discomfort, which improved spontaneously within 2 weeks. CONCLUSION: Surgical exposure of the distal internal carotid artery is enhanced with MS and nasotracheal intubation. We recommend Ivy loop/circumdental wiring as the preferred method for MS. Alternative methods are used when poor dental health is observed.  (+info)

The use of Poller screws as blocking screws in stabilising tibial fractures treated with small diameter intramedullary nails. (4/614)

Intramedullary nailing of metaphyseal fractures may be associated with deformity as a result of instability after fixation. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical use of Poller screws (blocking screws) as a supplement to stability after fixation with statically locked intramedullary nails of small diameter. We studied, prospectively, 21 tibial fractures, 10 in the proximal third and 11 in the distal third in 20 patients after the insertion of Poller screws over a mean period of 18.5 months (12 to 29). All fractures had united. Healing was evident radiologically at a mean of 5.4+/-2.1 months (3 to 12) with a mean varus-valgus alignment of -1.0 degree (-5 to 3) and mean antecurvatum-recurvatum alignment of 1.6 degrees (-6 to 11). The mean loss of reduction between placement of the initial Poller screw and follow-up was 0.5 degrees in the frontal plane and 0.4 degrees in the sagittal plane. There were no complications related to the Poller screw. The clinical outcome, according to the Karstrom-Olerud score, was not influenced by previous or concomitant injuries in 18 patients and was judged as excellent in three (17%), good in seven (39%), satisfactory in six (33%), fair in one (6%), and poor in one (6%).  (+info)

Leg lengthening over an intramedullary nail. (5/614)

Distraction osteogenesis is widely used for leg lengthening, but often requires a long period of external fixation which carries risks of pin-track sepsis, malalignment, stiffness of the joint and late fracture of the regenerate. We present the results of 20 cases in which, in an attempt to reduce the rate of complications, a combination of external fixation and intramedullary nailing was used. The mean gain in length was 4.7 cm (2 to 8.6). The mean time of external fixation was 20 days per centimetre gain in length. All distracted segments healed spontaneously without refracture or malalignment. There were three cases of deep infection, two of which occurred in patients who had had previous open fractures of the bone which was being lengthened. All resolved with appropriate treatment. This method allows early rehabilitation, with a rapid return of knee movement. There is a lower rate of complications than occurs when external fixation is used on its own. The time of external fixation is shorter than in other methods of leg lengthening. The high risk of infection calls for caution.  (+info)

Combined spinal-epidural in the obstetric patient with Harrington rods assisted by ultrasonography. (6/614)

We describe a patient with severe scoliosis, which had been corrected partially with Harrington rods, who requested epidural analgesia for labour. With no palpable landmarks, the use of ultrasound enabled identification of the vertebral midline and allowed provision of regional anaesthesia.  (+info)

Sport related proximal femoral fractures: a retrospective review of 31 cases treated in an eight year period. (7/614)

In an eight year period, 31 patients with proximal femoral fractures resulting from sports accidents were treated by implantation of either a Gamma nail or a dynamic hip screw. Return to work or sports and the time to bone healing did not differ very much between the treatments. Gamma nailing was clearly the best with regard to stability and time to full mobilisation (4.5 days), but required 39 minutes to perform compared with insertion of a dynamic hip screw (27 minutes). The incidence of complications and malalignments did not differ very much between the two, although, when Gamma nailing was first used in the authors' clinic, more intraoperative complications occurred than with the dynamic hip screw. Stable pertrochanteric fractures may be treated with a dynamic hip screw. Unstable pertrochanteric or subtrochanteric fractures are treated with a Gamma nail at the authors' institution.  (+info)

Two stage reconstruction for the Shepherd's crook deformity in a case of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. (8/614)

Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia leads to progressive and disabling deformity involving the proximal femur. Conventional methods of treatment have been ineffective in controlling this problem. Two stage reconstruction was carried out in a case of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia with bilateral shepherd's crook deformity. Bilateral subtrochanteric osteotomies with intramedullary fixation in the first stage and intertrochanteric osteotomies in the second stage with nail plate fixation was done to provide definitive control of the deformity. Bone graft was not used.  (+info)