Characterization of bone morphogenetic protein-6 signaling pathways in osteoblast differentiation.
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-6 is a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-(&bgr;) superfamily, and is most similar to BMP-5, osteogenic protein (OP)-1/BMP-7, and OP-2/BMP-8. In the present study, we characterized the endogenous BMP-6 signaling pathway during osteoblast differentiation. BMP-6 strongly induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in cells of osteoblast lineage, including C2C12 cells, MC3T3-E1 cells, and ROB-C26 cells. The profile of binding of BMP-6 to type I and type II receptors was similar to that of OP-1/BMP-7 in C2C12 cells and MC3T3-E1 cells; BMP-6 strongly bound to activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)-2 (also termed ActR-I), together with type II receptors, i.e. BMP type II receptor (BMPR-II) and activin type II receptor (ActR-II). In addition, BMP-6 weakly bound to BMPR-IA (ALK-3), to which BMP-2 also bound. In contrast, binding of BMP-6 to BMPR-IB (ALK-6), and less efficiently to ALK-2 and BMPR-IA, together with BMPR-II was detected in ROB-C26 cells. Intracellular signalling was further studied using C2C12 and MC3T3-E1 cells. Among the receptor-regulated Smads activated by BMP receptors, BMP-6 strongly induced phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation of Smad5, and less efficiently those of Smad1. However, Smad8 was constitutively phosphorylated, and no further phosphorylation or nuclear accumulation of Smad8 by BMP-6 was observed. These findings indicate that in the process of differentiation to osteoblasts, BMP-6 binds to ALK-2 as well as other type I receptors, and transduces signals mainly through Smad5 and possibly through Smad1. (+info)
Bone morphogenetic proteins-2 and -4: negative growth regulators in adult retinal pigmented epithelium.
PURPOSE: To determine the relative level and localization of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-4 mRNA in the retina and retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) under normal and pathologic conditions, to seek clues regarding possible functions. METHODS: Clones isolated from an RPE cDNA library were sequenced and used as probes for northern blot analysis. Expression in the retina and RPE was investigated in mouse models using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in situ hybridization. The effect of recombinant proteins on RPE proliferation was investigated by thymidine incorporation. RESULTS: Bovine clones with high homology to BMP-2 and BMP4 were isolated from a subtracted RPE cDNA library. Northern blot analysis using the clones as probes demonstrated abundant and differential expression in adult bovine RPE, but with RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, expression was also demonstrated in mouse retinal neurons. In mice with oxygen-induced ischemic retinopathy there was a striking decrease in BMP-4 mRNA in the retina within 6 hours of the onset of hypoxia that was maintained for at least 5 days. In mice with inherited photoreceptor degeneration, there was a dramatic decrease in BMP4 mRNA in retina and RPE during and after the degeneration. mRNA for the type II BMP receptor was observed in freshly isolated and cultured RPE cells, isolated retina, and freshly isolated bovine aortic endothelial cells. Thymidine incorporation in early-passage RPE cells showed a 14-fold stimulation above control with 5% serum that was decreased to 322%, 393%, and 313% in the presence of BMP-2 (10 ng/ml), BMP4 (10 ng/ml), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-,1 (2 ng/ml), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: BMP-2 and BMP-4 may serve as negative growth regulators in the retina and RPE that are downregulated by injury, to allow tissue repair. Modulation of expression of the BMPs may provide a means to control the exaggerated wound repair that occurs in proliferative retinopathies. (+info)
Requirement of autocrine signaling by bone morphogenetic protein-4 for chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5 cells.
Mouse EC cell line ATDC5 undergoes differentiation to form cartilage nodules via the cellular condensation stage in the presence of insulin. ATDC5 cells expressed transcripts for bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4), and type IA and type II BMP receptors. Moreover, cells retained responsiveness to BMP-4, which induced the formation of chondrocytes in the culture. When transfected with a kinase domain-truncated type IA BMP receptor construct, cells failed to undergo differentiation beyond the condensation stage even in the presence of insulin. The soluble form of type IA BMP receptor also blocked the formation of chondrocytes in a dose dependent manner. These lines of evidence suggested that autocrine BMP-4 signaling is required for the conversion of chondrogenic precursor cells into chondrocytes. (+info)
Targeted misexpression of constitutively active BMP receptor-IB causes bifurcation, duplication, and posterior transformation of digit in mouse limb.
Members of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play important roles in many aspects of vertebrate embryogenesis. In developing limbs, BMPs have been implicated in control of anterior-posterior patterning, outgrowth, chondrogenesis, and apoptosis. These diverse roles of BMPs in limb development are apparently mediated by different BMP receptors (BMPR). To identify the developmental processes in mouse limb possibly contributed by BMP receptor-IB (BMPR-IB), we generated transgenic mice misexpressing a constitutively active Bmpr-IB (caBmpr-IB). The transgene driven by the mouse Hoxb-6 promoter was ectopically expressed in the posterior mesenchyme of the forelimb bud, the lateral plate mesoderm, and the whole mesenchyme of the hindlimb bud. While the forelimbs appeared normal, the transgenic hindlimbs exhibited several phenotypes, including bifurcation, preaxial polydactyly, and posterior transformation of the anterior digit. However, the size of bones in the transgenic limbs seemed unaltered. Defects in sternum and ribs were also found. The bifurcation in the transgenic hindlimb occurred early in the limb development (E10.5) and was associated with extensive cell death in the mesenchyme and occasionally in the apical ectodermal ridge (AER). Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and Patched (Ptc) expression appeared unaffected in the transgenic limb buds, suggesting that the BMPR-IB mediated signaling pathway is downstream from Shh. However, ectopic Fgf4 expression was found in the anterior AER, which may account for the duplication of the anterior digit. An ectopic expression of Gremlin found in the transgenic limb bud would be responsible for the ectopic Fgf4 expression. The observations that Hoxd-12 and Hoxd-13 expression patterns were extended anteriorly provide a molecular basis for the posterior transformation of the anterior digit. Together these results suggest that BMPR-IB is the endogenous receptor to mediate the role of BMPs in anterior-posterior patterning and apoptosis in mouse developing limb. In addition, BMPR-IB may represent a critical component in the Shh/FGF4 feedback loop by regulating Gremlin expression. (+info)
BMP receptors in limb and tooth formation.
Members of the TGF-beta superfamily signal through receptor complexes comprised of type I and type II receptors. These receptors, which are serine/threonine kinases, form two new classes of transmembrane receptor kinases. The activity of both of the kinases is necessary for signal transduction in response to ligand binding. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which are members of the TGF-beta superfamily, bind to multiple type I and type II receptors. There is growing evidence to support the hypothesis that the BMP receptors are differentially regulated during development and that they have both unique and overlapping functions. Thus, the nature and distribution of the BMP receptors, which are reviewed here in the context of the development of limbs and teeth, appear to be critical in the control of the diverse activities of BMPs. (+info)
BMP type II receptor is required for gastrulation and early development of mouse embryos.
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, play a variety of roles during mouse development. BMP type II receptor (BMPR-II) is a type II serine/threonine kinase receptor, which transduces signals for BMPs through heteromeric complexes with type I receptors, including activin receptor-like kinase 2 (ALK2), ALK3/BMPR-IA, and ALK6/BMPR-IB. To elucidate the function of BMPR-II in mammalian development, we generated BMPR-II mutant mice by gene targeting. Homozygous mutant embryos were arrested at the egg cylinder stage and could not be recovered at 9.5 days postcoitum. Histological analysis revealed that homozygous mutant embryos failed to form organized structure and lacked mesoderm. The BMPR-II mutant embryos are morphologically very similar to the ALK3/BMPR-IA mutant embryos, suggesting that BMPR-II is important for transducing BMP signals during early mouse development. Moreover, the epiblast of the BMPR-II mutant embryo exhibited an undifferentiated character, although the expression of tissue-specific genes for the visceral endoderm was essentially normal. Our results suggest that the function of BMPR-II is essential for epiblast differentiation and mesoderm induction during early mouse development. (+info)
Expression of bone morphogenetic protein receptors type-IA, -IB and -II correlates with tumor grade in human prostate cancer tissues.
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are potential regulators of prostate cancer cell growth and metastasis that signal through an interaction with BMP membrane receptors (BMPRs) type I and type II. In the present study, Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis of BMPRs were carried out in benign and malignant human prostate tissues to explain the loss of BMP response in human prostate cancer cells. The results demonstrated that the benign prostate specimens expressed high levels of all three BMPRs. In normal prostate, BMPRs were localized predominantly to epithelial cells. Among prostate cancer specimens, well-differentiated cancers were positive for the expression of BMPR-II, BMPR-IA, and BMPR-IB, for the most part. In contrast, only 1 of 10 poorly differentiated prostate cancer cases was positive for each of the three BMPRs (P < 0.005 for all three receptors). Taken together, these results indicate that human prostate cancer cells frequently exhibit loss of expression of BMPRs and suggest that loss of BMPRs may play an important role during the progression of prostate cancer. (+info)
Engagement of bone morphogenetic protein type IB receptor and Smad1 signaling by anti-Mullerian hormone and its type II receptor.
Anti-Mullerian hormone induces the regression of fetal Mullerian ducts and inhibits the transcription of gonadal steroidogenic enzymes. It belongs to the transforming growth factor-beta family whose members signal through a pair of serine/threonine kinase receptors and Smad effectors. Only the anti-Mullerian hormone type II receptor has been identified. Our goal was to determine whether anti-Mullerian hormone could share a type I receptor with another family member. Co-immunoprecipitation of known type I receptors with anti-Mullerian hormone type II receptor clearly showed that the bone morphogenetic protein type IB receptor was the only cloned type I receptor interacting in a ligand-dependent manner with this type II receptor. Anti-Mullerian hormone also activates the bone morphogenetic protein-specific Smad1 pathway and the XVent2 reporter gene, an anti-Mullerian hormone type II receptor-dependent effect abrogated by a dominant negative version of bone morphogenetic protein type IB receptor. Reverse amplification experiments showed that bone morphogenetic protein type IB receptor is co-expressed with anti-Mullerian hormone type II receptor in most anti-Mullerian hormone target tissues. Our data support a model in which a ligand, anti-Mullerian hormone, gains access to a shared type I receptor and Smad1 system through a highly restricted type II receptor. (+info)