Bone marrow angiogenesis and mast cell density increase simultaneously with progression of human multiple myeloma.
Immunohistochemical, cytochemical and ultrastructural data showing vivid angiogenesis and numerous mast cells (MCs) in the bone marrow of 24 patients with active multiple myeloma (MM) compared with 34 patients with non-active MM and 22 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) led us to hypothesize that angiogenesis parallels progression of MM, and that MCs participate in its induction via angiogenic factors in their secretory granules. (+info)
Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-3 correct osteopetrosis in mice with osteopetrosis mutation.
Although young mice homozygous for the osteopetrosis (op) mutation usually developed prominent osteopetrosis, its severity was markedly reduced in aged op/op mice. This age-associated reversal of osteopetrosis was accompanied by the expansion of bone marrow cavities and increased numbers of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells and of macrophages in the bone marrow. The TRAP-positive cells were mononuclear and developed ruffled borders and numerous vesicles, vacuoles, and granules. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated a significant elevation of serum granulocyte/ macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-3 levels in the aged op/op mice. To examine whether GM-CSF and/or IL-3 could correct osteopetrosis in young op/op mice, 5 ng of recombinant murine (rm)GM-CSF and/or 100 ng of rmIL-3 were injected daily into young op/op mice. In these treated young op/op mice, the bone marrow cavities were expanded significantly at 2 weeks after administration, associated with significantly increased numbers of TRAP-positive cells and bone marrow macrophages. TRAP-positive cells increased in number with days after injection. These results suggest that GM-CSF and IL-3 induce the development of osteoclasts to correct osteopetrosis in the op/op mice with aging. (+info)
Organ-selective homing defines engraftment kinetics of murine hematopoietic stem cells and is compromised by Ex vivo expansion.
Hematopoietic reconstitution of ablated recipients requires that intravenously (IV) transplanted stem and progenitor cells "home" to organs that support their proliferation and differentiation. To examine the possible relationship between homing properties and subsequent engraftment potential, murine bone marrow (BM) cells were labeled with fluorescent PKH26 dye and injected into lethally irradiated hosts. PKH26(+) cells homing to marrow or spleen were then isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and assayed for in vitro colony-forming cells (CFCs). Progenitors accumulated rapidly in the spleen, but declined to only 6% of input numbers after 24 hours. Although egress from this organ was accompanied by a simultaneous accumulation of CFCs in the BM (plateauing at 6% to 8% of input after 3 hours), spleen cells remained enriched in donor CFCs compared with marrow during this time. To determine whether this differential homing of clonogenic cells to the marrow and spleen influenced their contribution to short-term or long-term hematopoiesis in vivo, PKH26(+) cells were sorted from each organ 3 hours after transplantation and injected into lethally irradiated Ly-5 congenic mice. Cells that had homed initially to the spleen regenerated circulating leukocytes (20% of normal counts) approximately 2 weeks faster than cells that had homed to the marrow, or PKH26-labeled cells that had not been selected by a prior homing step. Both primary (17 weeks) and secondary (10 weeks) recipients of "spleen-homed" cells also contained approximately 50% higher numbers of CFCs per femur than recipients of "BM-homed" cells. To examine whether progenitor homing was altered upon ex vivo expansion, highly enriched Sca-1(+)c-kit+Lin- cells were cultured for 9 days in serum-free medium containing interleukin (IL)-6, IL-11, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, stem cell factor, flk-2/flt3 ligand, and thrombopoietin. Expanded cells were then stained with PKH26 and assayed as above. Strikingly, CFCs generated in vitro exhibited a 10-fold reduction in homing capacity compared with fresh progenitors. These studies demonstrate that clonogenic cells with differential homing properties contribute variably to early and late hematopoiesis in vivo. The dramatic decline in the homing capacity of progenitors generated in vitro underscores critical qualitative changes that may compromise their biologic function and potential clinical utility, despite their efficient numerical expansion. (+info)
Bone marrow ribonucleic acid polymerase. Effect of testosterone on nucleotide incorporation into nuclear RNA.
The incorporation of 3H-UTP into RNA by isolated rat bone marrow nuclei is stimulated by testosterone. This effect is hormone and tissue specific. Using alpha-amanitine and different ionic strength conditions it was found that testosterone enhances preferentially RNA polymerase I activity. The sedimentation pattern of RNA isolated from bone marrow nuclei shows that the synthesis of RNA species within the 14-30 S range is mainly stimulated by the hormone. (+info)
In irradiation chimeras, K or D regions of the chimeric host, not of the donor lymphocytes, determine immune responsiveness of antiviral cytotoxic T cells.
The H-2 haplotype of the chimeric host determines the responder phenotype of maturing T cells. Spleen cells of chimeric mice formed when (K(k) nonresponder to D(b) x K(b) responder to D(b) plus vaccinia)F(1) bone marrow cells were used to reconstitute K(b)D(b) (C57BL/6 D(b) responder) irradiated recipients generated high levels of D(b) plus vaccinia virus-specific cytotoxic T cells. The same stem cells used to reconstitute K(k)D(b) (B10.A (2R) D(b) nonresponder) irradiated recipients resulted in spleen cells that responded well to K plus vaccinia, but responsiveness to D(b) was low. A generally low response to D(k) plus vaccinia, which seems to be regulated by D(k), was confirmed in chimeras. Thus, K(d)D(d) (D(d) plus vaccinia responder) stem cells differentiating in a K(d)D(k) chimeric host failed to generate a measurable response to D(k) plus vaccinia. In contrast, stem cells from K(d)D(k) (D(k) plus vaccinia low responders) differentiating in a K(d)D(d) (K(d) and D(d) high responders to vaccinia) host do generate responsiveness to D(d) plus vaccinia. These results indicate that in chimeras, the Ir phenotype is independent of the donor T cell's Ir genotype, and that thymic selection of a T cell's restriction specificity for a particular H-2 allele of the chimeric host also defines that T cell's/r phenotype. (+info)
Hydroxyapatite-coated femoral stems. Histology and histomorphometry around five components retrieved at post mortem.
We performed a histological and histomorphometric examination in five cadaver specimens of the femoral and acetabular components and the associated tissue which had been recovered between 3.3 and 6.2 years after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) using a proximal hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated titanium alloy implant. All had functioned well during the patients' life. All the stems were fixed in the femur and showed osseointegration of both the proximal and distal parts. The amount of residual HA was greatest in the distal metaphyseal sections, indicating that the rate of bone remodelling may be the main factor causing loss of HA. The level of activity of the patient was the only clinical factor which correlated with loss of coating. The percentage of bone-implant osseointegration was almost constant, regardless of the amount of HA residue, periprosthetic bone density or the time of implantation. HA debris was seldom observed and if present did not cause any adverse or inflammatory reaction. Partial debonding did occur in one case as a result of a polyethylene-induced inflammatory reaction. (+info)
Mutant N-ras induces myeloproliferative disorders and apoptosis in bone marrow repopulated mice.
Mutations that activate the N-ras oncogene are among the most frequently detected genetic alterations in human acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs), Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs), and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs). However, because N-ras has not been shown to induce these disorders in an in vivo model, the role of N-ras in the evolution of myeloid leukemia is unclear. To investigate the potential of N-ras to induce myeloid leukemia, lethally irradiated mice were reconstituted with bone marrow (BM) cells infected with a retroviral vector carrying activated N-ras. Approximately 60% of these mice developed hematopoietic disorders, including severe MPDs resembling human chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) or AML with differentiation (French-American-British [FAB] classification M2). Other reconstituted mice succumbed to hematopoietic defects that were pathologically similar to human MDSs. The latter disorders appeared to be due to a myeloid impairment that was demonstrated by enumeration of day-12 colony-forming units-spleen (CFU-S) and by in vitro colony assays. A high level of apoptosis associated with thymic atrophy and peripheral blood (PB) lymphopenia was also evident in N-ras reconstituted mice. Our results are consistent with a model in which antiproliferative effects are a primary consequence of N-ras mutations and secondary transforming events are necessary for the development of myeloid leukemia. This is the first report of an in vivo model for N-ras induced MPD and leukemia. (+info)
Quantitative polymerase chain reaction for the detection of micrometastases in patients with breast cancer.
PURPOSE: Previous reports have indicated that reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for cytokeratin 19 (CK-19) may be useful in the management of patients with breast cancer. However, the specificity of this technique is low, principally because of a high rate of false-positive results. To improve the specificity of this assay, we developed a quantitative RT-PCR methodology that enables an estimate to be made of the number of CK-19 transcripts in blood and bone marrow samples. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We examined 45 peripheral-blood samples and 30 bone marrow samples from patients with a variety of nonneoplastic conditions using nested RT-PCR for CK-19. We also examined bone marrow and peripheral-blood samples from 23 patients with primary breast cancer and peripheral-blood samples from 37 patients with metastatic breast cancer. The number of CK-19 transcripts was estimated in positive specimens by competitive PCR and normalized to the number of ABL transcripts as an internal control for the quality and quantity of cDNA. RT-PCR results were compared with the numbers of CK-19-positive cells detected by immunocytochemistry. RESULTS: Analysis of samples from patients without cancer enabled us to define an upper limit for the background ratio of CK-19 to ABL transcripts (1:1,000 for blood samples and 1:1,600 for bone marrow samples). Using these figures as cut-off points, elevated CK-19: ABL ratios were detected in peripheral-blood samples of 20 of 37 (54%) patients with metastatic breast cancer and in bone marrow samples of 14 of 23 (61%) patients with primary breast cancer. Only three of 23 (13%) primary breast cancer peripheral-blood samples and none of the control samples were positive by these criteria. Only two of 23 patients (9%) with primary breast cancer showed immunocytochemically detectable cells in the blood; 10 of 23 (43%) showed immunocytochemically detectable cells in the bone marrow. Of 36 patients with metastatic breast cancer, eight (22%) showed positive events. CONCLUSION: Quantitative RT-PCR for CK-19 detects a percentage of patients with breast cancer and may enable the progression or regression of the disease to be monitored. (+info)