Key factors for civilian injuries and deaths from exploding landmines and ordnance.
OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for death or injury from landmines and ordnance in Kabul City, Afghanistan, so programs can target preventive actions. METHODS: Active surveillance in hospitals and communities for injuries and deaths from landmine and ordnance explosions in Kabul City. RESULTS: Of the 571 people the authors identified during the 25-month period, 161 suffered a traumatic amputation and 94 were killed from a landmine or ordnance explosion. Of those asked, 19% of victims had received mine awareness education before the incident, and of those, the majority was injured while handling or playing with an explosive device. Most victims were young males with a few years of education. The occupation types most at risk were students and laborers, and unemployment was common among the victims. Collecting wood or paper and playing with or handling an explosive were the most frequent activities associated with injuries and deaths. CONCLUSIONS: From May 1996 to July 1998, explosions from landmines and ordnance claimed 571 victims and were an important preventable cause of injury and death among people in Kabul City. Prevention strategies should focus on high-risk groups and changing risky behaviors, such as tampering with explosive devices. (+info)
Scenario of a dirty bomb in an urban environment and acute management of radiation poisoning and injuries.
In the new security environment, there is a clear and present danger of terrorists using non-conventional weapons to inflict maximum psychological and economic damage on their targets. This article examines two scenarios of radiation contamination and injury, one accidental in nature leading to environmental contamination, and another of deliberate intent resulting in injury and death. This article also discusses the management of injury from radiological dispersion devices or dirty bombs, with emphasis on the immediate aftermath as well as strategy recommendations. (+info)
Weapons of war--humanitarian and medical impact.
Most of us have patients who have loved ones living far away, sometimes in conflict zones or in other dangerous locations, and we share in the anxiety and distress that such situations bring to relatives. (+info)
Bomb blast mass casualty incidents: initial triage and management of injuries.
Bomb blast injuries are no longer confined to battlefields. With the ever present threat of terrorism, we should always be prepared for bomb blasts. Bomb blast injuries tend to affect air-containing organs more, as the blast wave tends to exert a shearing force on air-tissue interfaces. Commonly-injured organs include the tympanic membranes, the sinuses, the lungs and the bowel. Of these, blast lung injury is the most challenging to treat. The clinical picture is a mix of acute respiratory distress syndrome and air embolism, and the institution of positive pressure ventilation in the presence of low venous pressures could cause systemic arterial air embolism. The presence of a tympanic membrane perforation is not a reliable indicator of the presence of a blast injury in the other air-containing organs elsewhere. Radiological imaging of the head, chest and abdomen help with the early identification of blast lung injury, head injury, abdominal injury, eye and sinus injuries, as well as any penetration by foreign bodies. In addition, it must be borne in mind that bomb blasts could also be used to disperse radiological and chemical agents. (+info)
Terrorism-related perceived stress, adolescent depression, and social support from friends.
Brain natriuretic peptide levels in six basic underwater demolitions/SEAL recruits presenting with swimming induced pulmonary edema (SIPE).
Swimming induced pulmonary edema (SIPE) is associated with both SCUBA diving and strenuous surface swimming; however, the majority of reported cases and clinically observed cases tend to occur during or after aggressive surface swimming. Capillary stress failure appears to be central to the pathophysiology of this disorder. Regional pulmonary capillaries are exposed to relatively high pressures secondary to increased vascular volume, elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance, and regional differences in perfusion secondary to forces of gravity and high cardiac output. Acute pulmonary edema can be classified as either cardiogenic or noncardiogenic or both. Cardiogenic pulmonary edema occurs when the pulmonary capillary hydrostatic pressure exceeds plasma oncotic pressure. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema occurs when pulmonary capillary permeability is increased. Given the pathophysiology noted above, SIPE can be described as a cardiogenic pulmonary edema, at least in part, since an increased transalveolar pressure gradient has been implicated in the pathogenesis of SIPE. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is used in the clinical setting to differentiate cardiac from pulmonary sources of dyspnea, specifically to diagnose cardiogenic pulmonary edema. During clinical management, BNP levels were drawn on six BUD/S recruits simultaneously presenting with pulmonary complaints consistent with SIPE, after an extended surface bay swim. This paper analyzes that data after de-identification and reviews the pathophysiology and clinical management of SIPE. (+info)
Clinically significant avoidance of public transport following the London bombings: travel phobia or subthreshold posttraumatic stress disorder?
Profiles of referrals to a psychiatric service: a descriptive study of survivors of the Nairobi US Embassy terrorist bomb blast.
OBJECTIVE: To document the socio-demographic characteristics and psychiatric profiles of the survivors of the Nairobi United States Embassy terrorist bomb blast referred to a psychiatric and psychotherapy (counselling) service. METHOD: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Clinical interviews and structured questionnaires for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and stress were administered. Survivors of the bomb blast referred to a psychiatric and psychotherapy service one year or more after the bombing were included in the study. These survivors had been treated using psychopharmacotherapy and individualised (not group) therapy/counselling. RESULTS: Eighty-three consecutive referrals to a psychiatric service participated in this study. There were more males and the sample was generally well educated. The referrals made contact with the referring agency for a number of reasons including seeking psychological, financial and medical assistance. All the patients reported varying degrees of psychiatric symptoms and functional impairment on various aspects of social occupational functioning. High scores for PTSD and other related stress were recorded one or more years after the bombing. CONCLUSION: Although the survivors indicated that initial counselling following the blast had helped them, they still scored high on PTSD suggesting that clinically, the initial counselling had little, if any impact on the development of PTSD. There is need for a holistic approach to the management of psychotrauma in individuals. (+info)