On the diversity of secreted phospholipases A(2). Cloning, tissue distribution, and functional expression of two novel mouse group II enzymes.
Over the last decade, an expanding diversity of secreted phospholipases A(2) (sPLA(2)s) has been identified in mammals. Here, we report the cloning in mice of three additional sPLA(2)s called mouse group IIE (mGIIE), IIF (mGIIF), and X (mGX) sPLA(2)s, thus giving rise to eight distinct sPLA(2)s in this species. Both mGIIE and mGIIF sPLA(2)s contain the typical cysteines of group II sPLA(2)s, but have relatively low levels of identity (less than 51%) with other mouse sPLA(2)s, indicating that these enzymes are novel group II sPLA(2)s. However, a unique feature of mGIIF sPLA(2) is the presence of a C-terminal extension of 23 amino acids containing a single cysteine. mGX sPLA(2) has 72% identity with the previously cloned human group X (hGX) sPLA(2) and displays similar structural features, making it likely that mGX sPLA(2) is the ortholog of hGX sPLA(2). Genes for mGIIE and mGIIF sPLA(2)s are located on chromosome 4, and that of mGX sPLA(2) on chromosome 16. Northern and dot blot experiments with 22 tissues indicate that all eight mouse sPLA(2)s have different tissue distributions, suggesting specific functions for each. mGIIE sPLA(2) is highly expressed in uterus, and at lower levels in various other tissues. mGIIF sPLA(2) is strongly expressed during embryogenesis and in adult testis. mGX sPLA(2) is mostly expressed in adult testis and stomach. When the cDNAs for the eight mouse sPLA(2)s were transiently transfected in COS cells, sPLA(2) activity was found to accumulate in cell medium, indicating that each enzyme is secreted and catalytically active. Using COS cell medium as a source of enzymes, pH rate profile and phospholipid headgroup specificity of the novel sPLA(2)s were analyzed and compared with the other mouse sPLA(2)s. (+info)
Induced desensitization of the insulinotropic effects of antidiabetic drugs, BTS 67 582 and tolbutamide.
Acute and chronic mechanisms of action of novel insulinotropic antidiabetic drug, BTS 67 582 (1, 1-dimethyl-2-(2-morpholinophenyl)guanidine fumarate), were examined in the stable cultured BRIN-BD11 cell line. BTS 67 582 (100 - 400 microM) stimulated a concentration-dependent increase (P<0.01) in insulin release at both non-stimulatory (1.1 mM) and stimulatory (8. 4 mM) glucose. Long-term exposure (3 - 18 h) to 100 microM BTS 67 582 in culture time-dependently decreased subsequent responsiveness to acute challenge with 200 microM BTS 67 582 or 200 microM tolbutamide at 12 - 18 h (P<0.001). Similarly 3 - 18 h culture with the sulphonylurea, tolbutamide (100 microM), also effectively suppressed subsequent insulinotropic responses to both BTS 67 582 and tolbutamide. Culture with 100 microM BTS 67 582 or 100 microM tolbutamide did not affect basal insulin secretion, cellular insulin content, or cell viability and exerted no influence on the secretory responsiveness to 200 microM of the imidazoline, efaroxan. While 18 h BTS 67 582 culture did not affect the insulin-releasing actions (P<0.001) of 16.7 mM glucose, 10 mM arginine, 30 mM KCl, 25 microM forskolin or 10 nM phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), significant inhibition (P<0.001) of the insulinotropic effects of 10 mM 2-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) and 10 mM alanine were observed. These data suggest that BTS 67 582 shares a common signalling pathway to sulphonylurea but not imidazoline drugs. Desensitization of drug action may provide an important approach to dissect sites of action of novel and established insulinotropic antidiabetic agents. (+info)
Fork head prevents apoptosis and promotes cell shape change during formation of the Drosophila salivary glands.
The secretory tubes of the Drosophila salivary glands are formed by the regulated, sequential internalization of the primordia. Secretory cell invagination occurs by a change in cell shape that includes basal nuclear migration and apical membrane constriction. In embryos mutant for fork head (fkh), which encodes a transcription factor homologous to mammalian hepatocyte nuclear factor 3beta (HNF-3beta), the secretory primordia are not internalized and secretory tubes do not form. Here, we show that secretory cells of fkh mutant embryos undergo extensive apoptotic cell death following the elevated expression of the apoptotic activator genes, reaper and head involution defective. We rescue the secretory cell death in the fkh mutants and show that the rescued cells still do not invaginate. The rescued fkh secretory cells undergo basal nuclear migration in the same spatial and temporal pattern as in wild-type secretory cells, but do not constrict their apical surface membranes. Our findings suggest at least two roles for fkh in formation of the embryonic salivary glands: an early role in promoting survival of the secretory cells, and a later role in secretory cell invagination, specifically in the constriction of the apical surface membrane. (+info)
Distinct roles for L- and T-type Ca(2+) channels in regulation of atrial ANP release.
Atrial secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) has been shown to be regulated by atrial workload. Although modulating factors for the secretion of ANP have been reported, the role for intracellular Ca(2+) on the secretion of ANP has been controversial. The purpose of the present study was to define roles for L- and T-type Ca(2+) channels in the regulation of ANP secretion in perfused beating rabbit atria. BAY K 8644 (BAY K) increased atrial stroke volume and pulse pressure. BAY K suppressed ANP secretion and ANP concentration in terms of extracellular fluid (ECF) translocation concomitantly with an increase in atrial dynamics. BAY K shifted the relationship between ANP secretion and ECF translocation downward and rightward. These results indicate that BAY K inhibits myocytic release of ANP. In the continuous presence of BAY K, diltiazem reversed the effects of BAY K. Diltiazem alone increased ANP secretion and ANP concentration along with a decrease in atrial dynamics. Diltiazem shifted relationships between ANP secretion and atrial stroke volume or ECF translocation leftward. The T-type Ca(2+) channel inhibitor mibefradil decreased atrial dynamics. Mibefradil inhibited ANP secretion and ANP concentration in contrast with the L-type Ca(2+) channel inhibitor. These results suggest that activation of L- and T-type Ca(2+) channels elicits opposite effects on atrial myocytic release of ANP. (+info)
Effect of itraconazole on the pharmacokinetics of prednisolone and methylprednisolone and cortisol secretion in healthy subjects.
AIMS: Itraconazole is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 activity and is often used in combination with corticosteroids. Since the latter are partly metabolized by CYP3A4, we studied the interaction between itraconazole, prednisone and methylprednisolone in healthy male subjects. METHODS: The effects of 4 days administration of oral itraconazole (400 mg on the first day then 200 mg day-1 for 3 days) on the pharmacokinetics of prednisolone after a single oral dose of prednisone (60 mg) and the pharmacokinetics of methylprednisolone after single oral dose of methylprednisolone (48 mg) were studied in 14 healthy male subjects in a two-period cross-over trial. Plasma cortisol concentrations were determined as a pharmacodynamic index. RESULTS: Itraconazole increased the mean area under the methylprednisolone concentration-time curve from 2773 ng ml-1 h to 7011 ng ml-1 h (P < 0.001) and the elimination half-life from 3.2 h to 5.5 h (P < 0.001). The pharmacokinetics of prednisolone were unchanged. Cortisol concentrations at 24 h were lower after administration of methylprednisolone with itraconazole than after methylprednisolone alone (24 ng ml-1 vs 109 ng ml-1, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Itraconazole increased methylprednisolone concentrations markedly with enhanced suppression of endogenous cortisol secretion, but had no effect on prednisolone pharmacokinetics. The pharmacokinetic interaction between methylprednisolone and itraconazole is probably related to inhibition of hepatic CYP3A4 activity by itraconazole. (+info)
Nasal and vaginal vaccinations have differential effects on antibody responses in vaginal and cervical secretions in humans.
Sexually transmitted diseases are a major health problem worldwide, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how to induce an optimal immune response in the genital tract of humans. In this study we vaccinated 21 volunteers nasally or vaginally with the model mucosal antigen cholera toxin B subunit and determined the level of specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG antibodies in vaginal and cervical secretions as well as in serum. To assess the hormonal influence on the induction of antibody responses after vaginal vaccination, we administered the vaccine either independently of the stage in the menstrual cycle or on days 10 and 24 in the cycle in different groups of subjects. Vaginal and nasal vaccinations both resulted in significant IgA and IgG anti-cholera toxin B subunit responses in serum in the majority of the volunteers in the various vaccination groups. Only vaginal vaccination given on days 10 and 24 in the cycle induced strong specific antibody responses in the cervix with 58-fold IgA and 16-fold IgG increases. In contrast, modest responses were seen after nasal vaccination and in the other vaginally vaccinated group. Nasal vaccination was superior in inducing a specific IgA response in vaginal secretions, giving a 35-fold increase, while vaginal vaccination induced only a 5-fold IgA increase. We conclude that a combination of nasal and vaginal vaccination might be the best vaccination strategy for inducing protective antibody responses in both cervical and vaginal secretions, provided that the vaginal vaccination is given on optimal time points in the cycle. (+info)
Characterization of temperature-sensitive mutations in the yeast syntaxin 1 homologues Sso1p and Sso2p, and evidence of a distinct function for Sso1p in sporulation.
The duplicated genes SSO1 and SSO2 encode yeast homologues of syntaxin 1 and perform an essential function during fusion of secretory vesicles at the plasma membrane. We have used in vitro mutagenesis to obtain a temperature-sensitive SSO2 allele, sso2-1, in which a conserved arginine has been changed to a lysine. A yeast strain that lacks SSO1 and carries the sso2-1 allele ceases growth and accumulates secretory vesicles at the restrictive temperature. Interestingly, the strain also has a pronounced phenotype at the permissive temperature, causing a defect in bud neck closure that prevents separation of mother and daughter cells. The same mutation was introduced into SSO1, producing the sso1-1 allele, which also has a temperature-sensitive phenotype, although less pronounced than sso2-1. A screen for high copy number suppressors of sso2-1 yielded three genes that are involved in the terminal step of secretion: SNC1, SNC2 and SEC9. The sso1-1 mutation interacts synthetically with a disruption of the MSO1 gene, which encodes a Sec1p interacting protein. Interestingly, we further found that both MSO1 and SSO1, but not SSO2, are required for sporulation. This difference is not due to differential expression, since SSO2 expressed from the SSO1 promoter failed to restore sporulation. We conclude that a functional difference exists between the Sso1 and Sso2 proteins, with the former being specifically required during sporulation. (+info)
Induction of secretory pathway components in yeast is associated with increased stability of their mRNA.
The overexpression of certain membrane proteins is accompanied by a striking proliferation of intracellular membranes. One of the best characterized inducers of membrane proliferation is the 180-kD mammalian ribosome receptor (p180), whose expression in yeast results in increases in levels of mRNAs encoding proteins that function in the secretory pathway, and an elevation in the cell's ability to secrete proteins. In this study we demonstrate that neither the unfolded protein response nor increased transcription accounts for membrane proliferation or the observed increase in secretory pathway mRNAs. Rather, p180-induced up-regulation of certain secretory pathway transcripts is due to a p180-mediated increase in the longevity of these mRNA species, as determined by measurements of transcriptional activity and specific mRNA turnover. Moreover, we show that the longevity of mRNA in general is substantially promoted through the process of its targeting to the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. With respect to the terminal differentiation of secretory tissues, results from this model system provide insights into how the expression of a single protein, p180, could result in substantial morphological and functional changes. (+info)