Multiple spontaneous small bowel perforations due to systemic cholesterol atheromatous embolism.
A-65-year-old man was admitted for coronary and peripheral angiography to evaluate angina pectoris and peripheral vascular disease. Following angiography, he suffered from blue toes, livedo reticularis and progressive renal failure. The patient's condition continued to deteriorate, including the development of malnutrition. Four months later he suddenly developed panperitonitis, went into shock and died. The autopsy verified multiple perforations of the small bowel with disseminated cholesterol atheromatous embolism. The other organs including kidney were also invaded by atheroembolism. This was a rare case of multiple spontaneous perforations of small bowel due to systemic cholesterol atheromatous embolism. (+info)
Doppler ultrasound monitoring for detection of microembolic signals in peripheral arteries.
OBJECTIVE: to use Doppler ultrasound to detect peripheral microemboluation. METHODS: standard Transcranial Doppler equipment was used to peripheral detect peripheral embolic high intensity transient signals (HITSs) in a pig model following injection of microparticles and atheroma, and in 23 patients who underwent open repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), six patients with blue toe syndrome and 10 age matched healthy subjects. RESULTS: the pig study showed increasing signal intensity with particle size. Particles of 100 (n=24), 200 (n=17), and 400 microm (n=31) elicited 14, 25, 33 dB signals, respectively (p<0.05). During AAA surgery, the intensity (median) of HITSs before clamping (n=226) and after declamping (n=1216) were 14, and 20dB, respectively (p<0.001). Quite a few HITSs were detected after surgery. In patients with blue toe syndrome, a total of 63 HITSs could be detected, and the frequency of HITSs (median: 5.72/30min) was significantly higher than that in patients with AAA before surgery (0.065/30min) (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Doppler ultrasound technique may be a clinically useful test to guide the treatment of patients at risk of distal atheroembolic events. (+info)
Blue toe syndrome: a rare complication of acute pancreatitis.
CONTEXT: Blue toe syndrome is an unusual complication of acute pancreatitis. It is characterized by tissue ischemia secondary to cholesterol crystal or atherothrombotic embolization leading to the occlusion of small vessels. Clinical presentation can range from a cyanotic toe to a diffuse multiorgan systemic disease that can mimic other systemic illnesses. CASE REPORT: Here we describe a young male who developed this complication after acute alcoholic pancreatitis. (+info)
The incidence and risk factors of cholesterol embolization syndrome, a complication of cardiac catheterization: a prospective study.
BACKGROUND: Cholesterol embolization syndrome is a systemic disease caused by distal showering of cholesterol crystals after angiography, major vessel surgery, or thrombolysis. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated a total of 1,786 consecutive patients 40 years of age and older, who underwent left-heart catheterization at 11 participating hospitals. The diagnosis of CES was made when patients had peripheral cutaneous involvement (livedo reticularis, blue toe syndrome, and digital gangrene) or renal dysfunction. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients (1.4%) were diagnosed as having CES. Twelve patients (48%) had cutaneous signs, and 16 patients (64%) had renal insufficiency. Eosinophil counts were significantly higher in CES patients than in non-CES patients before and after cardiac catheterization. The in-hospital mortality rate was 16.0% (4 patients), which was significantly higher than that without CES (0.5%, p < 0.01). All four patients with CES who died after cardiac catheterization had progressive renal dysfunction. The incidence of CES increased in patients with atherosclerotic disease, hypertension, a history of smoking, and the elevation of baseline plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) by univariate analysis. The femoral approach did not increase the incidence, suggesting a possibility that the ascending aorta may be a potential embolic source. As an independent predictor of CES, multivariate regression analysis identified only the elevation of pre-procedural CRP levels (odds ratio 4.6, P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Cholesterol embolization syndrome is a relatively rare but serious complication after cardiac catheterization. Elevated plasma levels of pre-procedural CRP are associated with subsequent CES in patients who undergo vascular procedures. (+info)
Cholesterol crystal embolization (CCE) after cardiac catheterization: a case report and a review of 36 cases in the Japanese literature.
Cholesterol crystal embolization (CCE) is a complication of atherosclerosis. A 67-year-old Japanese man underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. After the surgery, he underwent coronary angiography via the right femoral artery. Twelve days later, he suddenly developed acalculous cholecystitis and was treated with antibiotics. Gradual deterioration in renal function, purplish discoloration of the distal portion of his toes, and eosinophilia were noted. We performed a skin biopsy and made a diagnosis of CCE. Cilostazol and intravenous heparin improved the symptoms and decreased the creatinine level. We retrospectively studied the clinical features of 36 cases registered with a diagnosis of CCE in the Japanese literature. (+info)
A 77-year-old woman with sudden onset of blue discolouration of right third toe.
We report on a 77-year-old woman with a history of peripheral vascular disease who presented with an acute-onset tender blue toe and deteriorating renal function. A clinical diagnosis of blue toe syndrome was made but the patient deteriorated rapidly and died. This case illustrates the rapidly devastating nature and fatality of blue toe syndrome. There is no effective treatment for this condition. (+info)
Spontaneous dissection of the popliteal artery in a young man. A rare cause of the blue toe syndrome.
Spontaneous arterial dissection in peripheral arteries of the extremities is an extremely rare event. We report a case of a spontaneous dissection of a nonaneurysmal popliteal artery in an otherwise healthy 36-year-old man that came to clinical attention as an acute blue toe syndrome. The diagnosis was primarily made by high-resolution duplex ultrasound that revealed a dissection flap (length: 15.5 mm; thickness: 0.4 mm) together with the partially thrombosed false lumen at the dorsal wall of the left popliteal artery (degree of local diameter reduction: 56%). Further work-up by means of contrast-enhanced MR-A and conventional DSA confirmed a moderate stenosis of the popliteal artery compatible with focal dissection and excluded other causes such as popliteal artery entrapment syndrome. Under full-dose intravenous anticoagulation with unfractionated heparin that was switched to oral anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists (target INR: 2-3) and conservative management of the blue toe the patient made a gradual, but eventually complete clinical recovery over 8 weeks. (+info)
Native superficial femoral artery peripheral atherectomy site pseudoaneurysm: a case report.
A 45-year-old woman who presented with blue toe syndrome was treated with atherectomy for a focal plaque located in the superficial femoral artery. She subsequently developed a large pseudoaneurysm at the atherectomy site requiring multiple sequential endovascular procedures in order to maintain in-line blood flow to the foot. Pseudoaneurysm formation at native peripheral artery atherectomy site has not been reported previously. We discuss possible complications of atherectomy and the possible mechanism of pseudoaneurysm formation after atherectomy. We address the importance of understanding risks of these minimally invasive procedures along with planning follow-up duplex and potential bail-out tactics. (+info)