Extracorporeal rheopheresis in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke: A randomized pilot study.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Extracorporeal rheopheresis is a safe method to optimize hemorheology. Our aim was to determine whether treatment with extracorporeal rheopheresis in patients with acute ischemic hemispheric stroke improves cerebral perfusion as assessed with serial 99mTc-ethyl-cysteinate-dimer single-photon emission CT (99mTc-ECD SPECT). We also investigated how clinical outcome is associated with treatment and imaging results. METHODS: Thirty-three patients (mean age, 64+/-10 years) with acute ischemic hemispheric stroke were included in a prospective, randomized, parallel group pilot study. First treatment with or without extracorporeal rheopheresis took place within 12 hours after the onset of symptoms and was repeated 3 times at intervals of 24 hours. Hemorheological parameters were measured before and after each session. Each patient underwent 99mTc-ECD SPECT immediately before treatment, 6 to 8 hours after treatment, and after 5 days. A semiquantitative SPECT graded scale was used to measure depth and extent of activity deficits and thus to quantify the perfusion deficit. RESULTS: Seventeen patients were actively treated with extracorporeal rheopheresis, and 16 patients did not receive extracorporeal rheopheresis. After 3 months, no differences were found in the functional or neurological outcome. Despite a rapid, sustained decrease of plasma viscosity and erythrocyte aggregation in the rheopheresis group, there was no significant difference in the SPECT graded scale after therapy between the 2 groups. Patients with early reperfusion (decrease in the SPECT graded scale >25% 6 to 8 hours after therapy compared with the baseline examination) experienced a better functional outcome (Modified Rankin Scale) after 3 months compared with patients without reperfusion (P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Since quantitative flow mapping and clinical follow-up did not reveal any differences between patients who were treated with extracorporeal rheopheresis and controls, it appears very unlikely that extracorporeal rheopheresis enhances reperfusion after acute cerebral ischemia. (+info)
Circulatory changes induced by isovolumic increase in red cell mass in fetal lambs.
AIM: To verify whether extra uterine changes in total peripheral vascular resistance and cardiac output, caused by raised haematocrit, occur in fetal life and if they can be documented using conventional ultrasound techniques. METHODS: An exchange transfusion with packed red cells was performed on five fetal lambs at 140 days of gestation (weight 3.44, SD 0.48 kg); three others were used as controls. The haematocrit was raised from 44 +/- 3 to 64 (SD2)%. RESULTS: Body temperature, blood gas, and pH remained within normal limits. Blood viscosity increased from 5.3 (0.3) to 9.6 (1.6) cps. Combined cardiac output fell to 30% of its initial value. The pulsatility index (PI) remained unchanged in the umbilical artery (0.66, SD 0.1) and descending aorta (1.3, SD 0.3). A significant positive correlation was found between haematocrit and PI only in the carotid artery (r = 0.67, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: In the fetus, as in adults, an increase in blood viscosity is associated with a fall in cardiac output. However, the low resistance and the relative inertia of the placental vascular bed blunt the velocimetric changes that could be induced in the lower body vascular system by an increase in resistance. Such changes were observed only in the carotid artery. These results could be of interest in the Doppler monitoring of human fetuses at risk of an abnormal increase in their haematocrit. (+info)
Hemodilution, cerebral O2 delivery, and cerebral blood flow: a study using hyperbaric oxygenation.
Hemodilution reduces blood viscosity and O2 content (CaO2) and increases cerebral blood flow (CBF). Viscosity and CaO2 may contribute to increasing CBF after hemodilution. However, because hematocrit is the major contributor to blood viscosity and CaO2, it has been difficult to assess their relative importance. By varying blood viscosity without changing CaO2, prior investigation in hemodiluted animals has suggested that both factors play roughly equal roles. To further investigate the relationship of hemodilution, blood viscosity, CaO2, and CBF, we took the opposite approach in hemodiluted animals, i.e., we varied CaO2 without changing blood viscosity. Hyperbaric O2 was used to restore CaO2 to normal after hemodilution. Pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized rats underwent isovolumic hemodilution with 6% hetastarch, and forebrain CBF was measured with [3H]nicotine. One group of animals did not undergo hemodilution and served as controls (Con). In the three experimental groups, hematocrit was reduced from 44% to 17-19%. Con and hemodiluted (HDil) groups were ventilated with 40% O2 at 101 kPa (1 atmosphere absolute), which resulted in CaO2 values of 19.7 +/- 1.3 and 8.1 +/- 0.7 (SD) ml O2/dl, respectively. A second group of hemodiluted animals (HBar) was ventilated with 100% O2 at 506 kPa (5 atmospheres absolute) in a hyperbaric chamber, which restored CaO2 to an estimated 18.5 +/- 0.5 ml O2/dl by increasing dissolved O2. A fourth group of hemodiluted animals (HCon) served as hyperbaric controls and were ventilated with 10% O2 at 506 kPa, resulting in CaO2 of 9.1 +/- 0.6 ml O2/dl. CBF was 79 +/- 19 ml. 100 g-1. min-1 in the Con group and significantly increased to 123 +/- 9 ml. 100 g-1. min-1 in the HDil group. When CaO2 was restored to baseline with dissolved O2 in the HBar group, CBF decreased to 104 +/- 20 ml. 100 g-1. min-1. When normoxia was maintained during hyperbaric exposure in the HCon group, CBF was 125 +/- 18 ml. 100 g-1. min-1, a value indistinguishable from that in normobaric HDil animals. Our data demonstrate that the reduction in CaO2 after hemodilution is responsible for 40-60% of the increase in CBF. (+info)
Relationship between smoking and cardiovascular risk factors in the development of peripheral arterial disease and coronary artery disease: Edinburgh Artery Study.
AIMS: The aim was to determine whether the effect of smoking on the development of peripheral or coronary artery disease might be mediated by other cardiovascular risk factors, including dietary antioxidant vitamin intake, serum low and high density lipoproteins, blood pressure, plasma fibrinogen, blood viscosity and markers of endothelial disturbance and fibrin turnover. METHODS AND RESULTS: 1592 men and women aged 55-74 years were selected at random from 11 general practices in Edinburgh, Scotland and followed-up for 5 years. The incidences of peripheral arterial disease and coronary artery disease were 5.1% and 11.1%, respectively. Both conditions were more common in moderate and heavy smokers than in never smokers: cigarette smoking was a stronger risk factor for peripheral arterial disease than for coronary artery disease. Smoking was associated with reduced dietary antioxidant vitamin intake, serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure and with increased alcohol intake, serum triglycerides, blood viscosity, plasma fibrinogen, and markers of endothelial disturbance (tissue plasminogen activator and von Willebrand factor antigens). Simultaneous adjustment for these risk factors reduced the relative risk of peripheral arterial disease only slightly, from 3.94 (95% CI 2.04, 7.62) to 2.72 (95% CI 1.13, 6.53) in heavy smokers and from 1.87 (95% CI 0.91, 3.85) to 1.70 (95% CI 0.72, 3.99) in moderate smokers. Similar adjustment also had little effect on the risk of coronary artery disease associated with smoking. CONCLUSION: The combined effect of smoking on the cardiovascular risk factors studied may explain part of its influence on peripheral and coronary arterial disease, but the majority of the effect appears to be due to other mechanisms. (+info)
Decreased anion gap associated with monoclonal and pseudomonoclonal gammopathy.
Nine patients with monoclonal and one with pseudomonoclonal gammopathy were found to have a decreased anion gap. Eight of the patients had multiple myeloma, one has plasma cell leukemia and one had chronic active hepatitis. In all of the the decreased anion gap was associated with an increased concentration of IgG greater than 5 g/dl. (+info)
Repetitive hemodilution in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary hypertension: effects on pulmonary hemodynamics, gas exchange, and exercise capacity.
BACKGROUND: In cor pulmonale associated with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), disturbances of pulmonary microcirculation may contribute significantly to hypoxemia, pulmonary hypertension, and exercise intolerance. OBJECTIVE: It was tested whether reduction of blood viscosity induced by repetitive hemodilution might improve pulmonary hemodynamics and oxygen uptake. METHODS: Seven patients with stable COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 s 33 +/- 3 % of predicted, means +/- SE) and pulmonary hypertension were phlebotomized 5-6 times over a period of 3 months with substitution of 6% hydroxyethyl starch (molecular weight 40, 000). This resulted in a stepwise reduction of the hematocrit from 53.3 +/- 2.6 to 45.8 +/- 3.1% and a reduction of whole blood viscosity from 9.8 +/- 0.6 to 8.8 +/- 0.7 mPa x s at a shear rate of 2.0 s-1. Before and after the treatment period, patients underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing and right heart catheterization. RESULTS: Mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAm) decreased from 30 +/- 3 to 22 +/- 2 mm Hg and arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) increased from 63.2 +/- 2.2 to 71.8 +/- 3.7 mm Hg at rest. During peak exercise, PAm decreased from 59 +/- 7 to 53 +/- 7 mm Hg and PaO2 increased from 54.0 +/- 5.7 to 63.2 +/- 2.4 mm Hg after hemodilution. Peak oxygen consumption rose from 573 +/- 84 to 750 +/- 59 ml x min-1, corresponding to an increase in cardiac index from 4.25 +/- 0.5 to 5.88 +/- 0.76 liters x min-1 x m-2. Pulmonary vascular resistance fell from 345 +/- 53 to 194 +/- 32 dyn x s x cm-5. The patients' peak exercise capacity increased from 9.2 +/- 2. 0 before to 13.5 +/- 3.2 kJ at the end of the study (p < 0.05 for all differences, paired t test). CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that a prolonged improvement of pulmonary microcirculation by reducing blood viscosity may improve pulmonary gas exchange, central hemodynamics, and exercise tolerance in patients with severe COPD and pulmonary hypertension. (+info)
Hemorheology and walking of peripheral arterial occlusive diseases patients during treatment with Ginkgo biloba extract.
AIM: To study the effects of Ginkgo biloba extract 761 (GbE) from the points of view of hemorheology for patients of peripheral arterial occlusive diseases (PAOD). METHODS: The treatment with GbE (240 mg.d-1, po) and the pain-free walking distance (PFWD) were carried out for 24 PAOD patients (12 nondiabetic, ND and 12 diabetic, D) over 48 wk. The parameters erythrocyte stiffness (ES) and relaxation time (RT), the blood plasma viscosity (eta), the plasma fibrinogen concentration (Cf) and the blood sedimentation rate (BSR), the PFWD, and maximal walking distance (MWD) were determined at 6 wk before treatment (-6), at the beginning of the treatment (0), and after 6, 11, 16, and 48 wk of treatment. RESULTS: At wk -6, ES and RT of both the ND- and D-group were not significantly different from a healthy control group. At wk 0, stiffness and RT were significantly higher than healthy control, and the mean PFWD was only 111 m. The eta value was significantly elevated and Cf and BSR were enhanced. Throughout 11 wk of treatment ES, RT, eta, and Cf decreased gradually and PFWD improved. Between 16 and 48 wk, ES, and RT were no longer significantly different from the controls, whereas eta and Cf decreased gradually but remained higher than normal, BSR decreased, and the PFWD improved by a factor of 3.8 times (D) and 3.3 times (ND). CONCLUSION: GbE gives therapeutic effects in PAOD patients. (+info)
Altered flow properties of blood and increased plasma fibrinogen in cyclosporin-treated renal allograft recipients.
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in blood rheology may be factors contributing to cardiovascular complications and the progression of renal failure in kidney allograft recipients. The haemorheological variables haematocrit, fibrinogen, whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, erythrocyte aggregation tendency and fluidity were measured in 27 cyclosporin A (CyA)-treated patients who had received a renal graft at least 6 months previously. Their creatinine clearance was in the range of 12-92 ml/min/1.73 m2 (mean 55+/-19). The values were compared with those obtained from a control group comprising 20 healthy subjects matched according to age, sex and smoking habits. RESULTS: The haematocrit, plasma fibrinogen, whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, erythrocyte aggregation tendency, body mass index (BMI), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and serum triglycerides were increased in the transplanted patients, and the serum high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and erythrocyte fluidity decreased. The haemorheological variables were used as dependent variables in a stepwise regression analysis with age, MAP, BMI, urinary albumin excretion rate, blood CyA concentration, creatinine clearance, and serum triglycerides, cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol as independent variables. Plasma fibrinogen was positively correlated with BMI and blood CyA. The whole blood viscosity was positively correlated with blood CyA and negatively with serum HDL-cholesterol. Only serum triglycerides remained correlated with erythrocyte aggregation tendency. CONCLUSIONS: All variables with a known impact on blood viscosity were altered in the present group of renal transplant recipients. Inappropriate regulation of erythrocyte formation, overweight, the use of CyA, high triglycerides and low HDL-cholesterol levels may be factors contributing to this. The importance of impaired flow properties of blood for the development of cardiovascular diseases and transplant glomerulosclerosis needs to be examined. (+info)