Hemoglobin Providence. A human hemoglobin variant occurring in two forms in vivo.
Hemoglobin Providence Asn and Hemoglobin Providence Asp are two abnormal hemoglobins which apparently arise from a single genetic change that substitutes asparagine for lysine at position 82 (EF6) in the beta chain of human hemoglobin. The second form appears to be thr result of a partial in vivo deamidation of the asparagine situated at position beta 82. Cellulose acetate and citrate agar electrophoresis of hemolysates from patients with this abnormality shows three bands. Globin chain electrophoresis at acid and alkaline pH shows three beta chains. These three chains correspond to the normal beta A chain and two abnormal beta chains. Sequence analysis indicates that the two abnormal chains differ from beta A at only position beta 82. In the two abnormal chains, the residue which is normally lysine is substituted either by asparagine or by aspartic acid. These substitutions are notable because beta 82 lysine is one of the residues involved in 2,3-diphosphoglycerate binding. Additionally, beta 82 lysine is typically invariant in hemoglobin beta chain sequences. Sequence data on the two forms of Hemoglobin Providence are given in this paper. The functional properties of these two forms are described in the next paper. (+info)
Effects of a frequent apolipoprotein E isoform, ApoE4Freiburg (Leu28-->Pro), on lipoproteins and the prevalence of coronary artery disease in whites.
Different isoforms of apoE modulate the concentrations of plasma lipoproteins and the risk for atherosclerosis. A novel apoE isoform, apoE4Freiburg, was detected in plasma by isoelectric focusing because its isoelectric point is slightly more acidic than that of apoE4. ApoE4Freiburg results from a base exchange in the APOE4 gene that causes the replacement of a leucine by a proline at position 28. Analysis of the allelic frequencies in whites in southwestern Germany revealed that this isoform is frequent among control subjects (10:4264 alleles) and is even more frequent in patients with coronary artery disease (21:2874 alleles; P=0.004; adjusted odds ratio, 3.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.20 to 7.97). ApoE4Freiburg affects serum lipoproteins by lowering cholesterol, apoB, and apoA-I compared with apoE4 (P<0.05). Our 4 apoE4Freiburg homozygotes suffered from various phenotypes of hyperlipoproteinemia (types IIa, IIb, IV, and V). In vitro binding studies excluded a binding defect of apoE4Freiburg, and in vivo studies excluded an abnormal accumulation of chylomicron remnants. ApoE4Freiburg and apoE4 accumulated to a similar extent in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. HDLs, however, contained about 40% less apoE4Freiburg than apoE4. In conclusion, our data indicate that apoE4Freiburg exerts its possible atherogenic properties by affecting the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and HDL. (+info)
Paraprotein estimation: a comparison of immunochemical and densitometric techniques.
Paraproteins have been estimated by both immunochemical methods and densitometric analysis of electrophoretic strips. Correlation between the results obtained by these two methods, although generally good for assessing trends, varied between patients. (+info)
Mass screening of newborn Swedish infants for alpha antitrypsin deficiency.
During the first year of mass screening for alpha1 antitrypsin deficiency, 108,000 newborn Swedish infants were examined. The screening method and criteria used for selecting infants with alpha1 antitrypsin deficiency were reliable. The Pi Z phenotype occurred at a rate of one per 1,433 infants, and the PiZ allele frequency was .026. The Pi- allele was found in one Pi Z and one Pi S infant. The Pi- allele frequency probably was below .001. (+info)
Red cell proteins. I. Two-dimensional mapping of human erythrocyte lysate proteins.
Human erythrocyte lysate proteins were resolved into over 250 discrete spots by two-dimensional electrophoresis using isoelectric focusing in the first dimension and electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, (SDS) in the second. The overwhelming excess of hemoglobin has made such analyses difficult in the past. However, with the ISO-DALT two-dimensional electrophoresis system, large numbers of red cell proteins can be mapped in the presence of hemoglobin. When hemoglobin and several other major proteins are removed by adsorption to DEAE-cellulose, additional minor components are seen, giving a total of over 275. With the use of purified preparations, the map positions of five cell enzymes or their subunits were determined: pyruvate kinase, catalase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase, and carbonic anhydrase. The mapping techniques described complement and extend those traditionally used to find human red cell protein variants. (+info)
Effect of overexpression of human apo A-I in C57BL/6 and C57BL/6 apo E-deficient mice on 2 lipoprotein-associated enzymes, platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase and paraoxonase. Comparison of adenovirus-mediated human apo A-I gene transfer and human apo A-I transgenesis.
Various mechanisms may contribute to the antiatherogenic potential of apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) and high density lipoproteins (HDLs). Therefore, the effect of adenovirus-mediated human apo A-I gene transfer or human apo A-I transgenesis on platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) and arylesterase/paraoxonase (PON1) was studied in C57BL/6 and C57BL/6 apo E(-/-) mice. Human apo A-I transgenesis in C57BL/6 mice resulted in a 4.2-fold (P<0.0001) increase of PAF-AH and a 1.7-fold (P=0.0012) increase of PON1 activity. The apo E deficiency was associated with a 1.6-fold (P=0.008) lower PAF-AH and a 2.0-fold (P=0.012) lower PON1 activity. Human apo A-I transgenesis in C57BL/6 apo E(-/-)mice increased PAF-AH and PON1 activity by 2.1-fold (P=0.01) and 2.5-fold (P=0.029), respectively. After adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of human apo A-I into C57BL/6 apo E(-/-)mice, a strong correlation between human apo A-I plasma levels and PAF-AH activity was observed at day 6 (r=0.92, P<0.0001). However, PON1 activity failed to increase, probably as a result of cytokine-mediated inhibition of PON 1 expression. In conclusion, this study indicates that overexpression of human apo A-I increases HDL-associated PAF-AH activity. PON1 activity was also increased in human apo A-I transgenic mice, but not after human apo A-I gene transfer, a result that was probably related to cytokine production induced in the liver by the adenoviral vectors. Increased levels of these HDL-associated enzymes may contribute to the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative potential of HDL and thereby to the protection conferred by HDL against atherothrombosis. (+info)
Thalassaemia in northern Liberia. A survey in the Mount Nimba area.
A population survey in northern Liberia showed an average incidence of 9 percent of beta-thalassaemia trait. There was considerable tribal variation, the highest rates being mainly found in tribes having a low incidence of Hb S. A single example of deltabeta-thalassaemia trait was also found; the incidence of delta-chain variants was 1.8 percent. The effect of malaria on Hb A2 levels was investigated but appeared to be negligible. The problems of beta-thalassaemia and Hb S occurring in the same population are discussed. It is considered that, although made on a local sample, the results of this survey indicate a high incidence of beta-thalassaemia trait elsewhere in Liberia and that this is a suitable are for investigations of linkage at beta- and delta-chain loci. No conclusion is at present possible from the data on the presence of alpha-thalassaemia although 10 percent of neonates were found to have increased levels of Hb Barts. (+info)
Haemoglobin Lepore Boston and elliptocytosis in a family of Indonesian-German ancestry.
A family is presented in which Hb Lepore Boston was found in six individuals over three generations. The gene must have had its origin either in Java (Indonesia) or in what is now the Federal Republic of Germany. The haemoglobin was characterized by amino-acid analysis of the six tryptic peptides that have a different composition in the beta- and the delta-chain. The ratio of glycine to alanine in position 136 of the fetal haemoglobin, which was somewhat raised in the Hb Lepore carriers, averaged 31:39. In addition an elliptocytosis gene was found, which was inherited independently from Hb Lepore; the simultaneous presence of elliptocytosis in three family members did not seem to aggravate the mild anaemia caused by Hb Lepore. (+info)