Inherited prothrombotic risk factors and cerebral venous thrombosis.
Fifteen patients with cerebral venous thrombosis were ascertained retrospectively. Their case notes were reviewed, and stored or new blood was assayed for factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation, prothrombin gene mutation 20201A, and 5,10 methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T mutation. A clinical risk factor was identified in 13 patients--the oral contraceptive pill (5), puerperium (1), HRT (1), mastoiditis (1), dehydration (1), lumbar puncture and myelography (1), carcinoma (1), lupus anticoagulant (2). In addition, two patients had the FVL mutation and five (one of whom also had the FVL mutation) were homozygous for the MTHFR mutation. The latter showed a higher than expected frequency compared to 300 healthy controls from South Wales (OR 3.15.95% Cl 1.01-9.83). No patient had the prothrombin 20201A mutation. Two patients died and three had a monocular visual deficit following anticoagulation (13) or thrombolytic (2) treatment, but there was no association between the presence of a primary prothrombotic risk factor and outcome. These results confirm the importance of investigating patients for both clinical predisposing factors and primary prothrombotic states. (+info)
Coordinate augmentation in expression of genes encoding transcription factors and liver secretory proteins in hypo-oncotic states.
BACKGROUND: In the nephrotic syndrome (NS) proteins of intermediate size (40 to 200 kD) are lost into the urine resulting in a decrease in plasma albumin concentration and as a consequence a reduction in plasma colloid osmotic pressure (pi). Plasma pi has also been reported to be reduced in the condition of hereditary analbuminemia. The liver, in an apparent compensatory response, increases synthesis of a group of secreted proteins defending plasma pi. Regulation of several of these proteins, including both positive and negative acute phase proteins, is at the transcriptional level. This is the only known condition in which transcription of both positive and negative acute phase proteins (APPs) are increased simultaneously. The specific transcription factor(s) that might regulate this cascade is not defined. METHODS: RNA was extracted from livers of 5 rats with hereditary analbuminemia (the Nagase analbuminemic rat, NAR), 5 rats with NS induced by adriamycin (Adria), 5 rats with NS caused by passive Heymann nephritis (NS) and 5 control animals. The concentrations of mRNAs encoding four secreted proteins (albumin, transferrin, fibrinogen, and apo A-1), five transcription factors, early growth response factor 1 (EGRF-1), HNF-4, NGFI-C, EGR-3, and Krox20 relative to two housekeeping genes, beta actin and GAPDH were determined simultaneously using kinetic reverse transcriptase polymerase chain methodology (kRT-PCR). RESULTS: The levels of all mRNAs encoding secreted proteins except for albumin (which was reduced in NAR) were increased in NS and NAR and correlated significantly with one another. mRNA encoding EGRF 1 was increased fivefold in NS and NAR, and correlated significantly with mRNAs encoding Apo A-1, transferrin and albumin in the two NS groups. HNF-4 mRNA was increased approximately twofold in both NS groups and correlated with albumin (R = 0.881, P < 0.001), transferrin (R = 0.563, P = 0.012) and apo A-1 (R = 0.644, P = 0. 003). While fibrinogen mRNA correlated with that of each of the other secreted proteins, it did not correlate with either HNF-4 or EGRF-1 mRNA. Krox20, EGR3 and NGF1C were expressed at nearly undetectable levels. CONCLUSIONS: The hepatic response in conditions characterized by reduced plasma pi include increased levels of mRNAs encoding a group of secreted proteins, including the negative APPs albumin, transferrin and apo A-1, and the positive APP fibrinogen. Levels of mRNAs encoding negative APPs and fibrinogen correlate with one another, suggesting that they are coordinately controlled. Both EGRF-1 and HNF-4 may regulate the expression of the negative APPs, which have increased transcription in hypo-oncotic states. (+info)
Complement fixation by rheumatoid factor.
The capacity for fixation and activation of hemolytic complement by polyclonal IgM rheumatoid factors (RF) isolated from sera of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and monoclonal IgM-RF isolated from the cryoprecipitates of patients with IgM-IgG mixed cryoglobulinemia was examined. RF mixed with aggregated, reduced, and alkylated human IgG (Agg-R/A-IgG) in the fluid phase failed to significantly reduce the level of total hemolytic complement, CH50, or of individual complement components, C1, C2, C3, and C5. However, sheep erythrocytes (SRC) coated with Agg-R/A-IgG or with reduced and alkylated rabbit IgG anti-SRC antibody were hemolyzed by complement in the presence of polyclonal IgM-RF. Human and guinea pig complement worked equally well. The degree of hemolysis was in direct proportion to the hemagglutination titer of the RF against the same coated cells. Monoclonal IgM-RF, normal human IgM, and purified Waldenstrom macroglobulins without antiglobulin activity were all inert. Hemolysis of coated SRC by RF and complement was inhibited by prior treatment of the complement source with chelating agents, hydrazine, cobra venom factor, specific antisera to C1q, CR, C5, C6, or C8, or by heating at 56 degrees C for 30 min. Purified radiolabeled C4, C3, and C8 included in the complement source were bound to hemolysed SRC in direct proportion to the degree of hemolysis. These data indicate that polyclonal IgM-RF fix and activate complement via the classic pathway. The system described for assessing complement fixation by isolated RF is readily adaptable to use with whole human serum. (+info)
Sialoproteinaemia: lack of correlation with inhibition of in vitro lymphoblastosis induced by phytohaemagglutinin or alloantigen.
Elevation of serum-bound sialic acid concentration in different disease states fails to correlate significantly with suppressive serum actions in mixed allogeneic lymphocyte cultures or phyto-haemagglutinin cultures. Heat-decomplemented serum from patients with abnormal levels of bound sialic acid was added to parallel cultures containing similar blood lymphocyte populations derived from normal humans. Wide fluctuations of the rate of incorporation of tritiated thymidine into nucleoprotein indicated presence of suppressive elements other than sialoprotein in the added serum components. Serum with rising sialyl concentration derived from patients with cancer showed slight tendency to augment mixed lymphocyte and phytohaemagglutinin responses. The findings suggest that the previously documented nonspecific suppressive action of serum sialoprotein on human host lymphoblastic response to neuraminidase-treated cancer cells represents a mechanism unique to that culture system rather than a manifestation of a general immunoregulatory function of serum sialoprotein. (+info)
Hypoalbuminaemia due to protein loss from gastric carcinoma.
In a patient suffering from carcinoma of the stomach generalized oedema was the presenting symptom. It is suggested that this was due to excessive loss of protein from the stomach. (+info)
STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF HUMAN 7S GAMMA-GLOBULIN (G IMMUNOGLOBULIN). FURTHER OBSERVATIONS OF A NATURALLY OCCURRING PROTEIN RELATED TO THE CRYSTALLIZABLE (FAST) FRAGMENT.
1. Detailed physical, chemical, and immunologic studies of a protein closely related to the Fc fragment and heavy chain of G immunoglobulin (IgG), and elaborated by a subject with a lymphoproliferative disorder are presented. 2. The protein, which has a molecular weight of 51,000, was cleaved into two half molecules by reduction and alkylation. 3. The protein has few if any of the antigenic determinants of the antigen-binding (Fab) papain fragment of IgG, and has a striking similarity in its antigenic properties to the Fc fragment. 4. Fingerprint patterns resemble those of the crystallizable (Fc) fragment, and lack several peptides found in the heavy chain. 5. These findings suggest that the Fc fragment may be a real structural unit of IgG, and raise the possibility of the existence of three different types of polypeptide chains in G immunoglobulin. (+info)
METABOLISM AND FUNCTION OF GAMMA GLOBULIN IN ALEUTIAN DISEASE OF MINK.
Aleutian disease-affected mink, which are markedly hypergammaglobulinemic, show a decreased half-life of the serum gamma globulin indicating that the hyperglobulinemia is due to increased production. No evidence that the gamma globulin was antibody to the infectious agent, to autologous or isologous tissues, or to antigens the animal was responding to prior to development of the disease was obtained. The increased gamma globulin was found to be of the 6.4S variety, and gamma globulin containing protein-protein complexes of 9S to 17S and 22S to 25S classes were observed in serums of affected mink. The findings are most consistent with the Aleutian disease virus acting as a direct and somewhat selective stimulus to plasma cell proliferation. There is no evidence that the arterial and glomerular lesions of Aleutian disease have an immunologic pathogenesis. It seems possible that these vascular changes may be directly caused by the viral agent, or may be the result of the increased gamma globulin levels. (+info)
AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE IN NZB/BL MICE. I. PATHOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS OF A MODEL SYSTEM OF SPONTANEOUS GLOMERULONEPHRITIS.
This study, based upon 528 laboratory examinations and 16 complete autopsies of NZB/Bl mice, deals with autoimmune manifestations (as shown by hypergammaglobulinemia, Coombs positive hemolytic anemia, and the occasional presence of lupus- and rheumatoid-like factors) and mainly with the pathology and the pathogenesis of glomerulonephritis in these mice, a model system of membranous glomerulonephritis with spontaneous and insidious onset, progression through chronic stages, and almost certainly induced by immunological, and autoimmune, mechanisms. The earliest and lasting histological change was hyaline thickening of the capillary walls and adjacent intercapillary regions of the glomerular tufts, corresponding in location to polysaccharide-rich capillary basement membrane and mesangial materials. Distributed focally and diffusely in the glomerular tuft and eventually sparing no glomerulus, hyaline, granular, and fibrillar ("spongy fiber") materials produced narrowing of capillary lumens by concentric or eccentric encroachment upon them. In the later stages hyaline lobulation and sclerosis of the glomerular tufts occurred. Thus the lesions corresponded to those seen in human focal and diffuse membranous, chronic lobular, and lastly (intracapillary) sclerosing glomerulonephritis. In all instances of glomerulonephritis the glomerular tufts contained selective localizations of mouse immunoglobulins corresponding in distribution to that of the hyaline and (PAS-positive) polysaccharide-rich materials in the focal and diffuse membranous and lobular lesions and in amounts increasing with the severity of glomerular disease. The mouse immunoglobulins were extracted from frozen sections of glomerulonephritic kidneys and were then capable of recombination with glomerular tufts in sections of autologous or isologous glomerulonephritic kidneys from which in vivo localized immunoglobulins had been extracted. The pattern of recombination with glomerular tufts was similar to that of in invo localized immunoglobulins. The extracted immunoglobulins did not show affinity for mouse red cells (in the indirect Coombs test) nor for autologous or isologous cell nuclei (in the immunofluorescence test). The serum of mice with severe glomerulonephritis contained immunoglobulins with in vitro affinity for extracted autologous or isologous glomerular tufts. Thus circulating as well as localized antibodies were demonstrated. The immunogenic materials (autoantigens) may have been formed in the glomerular tufts or accumulated in them from some other source, such as the circulating plasma; however they corresponded in location to polysaccharide-rich capillary basement membrane and mesangial materials. The spleen was identified at the cellular level as the main site of formation of autoantibodies to red cells, as well as the main site of red cell destruction. Some evidence was brought forth suggesting that these autoantibodies were "heavy" or gammaM-globulins. More studies are in progress. (+info)