(1/741) Linkage relations of locus for X-borne type of Charcot-Marie-Tooth muscular atrophy and that for Xg blood groups.
The locus for the X-borne type of Charcot-Marie-Tooth muscular atrophy is not close to the Xg locus and probably not within direct measurable distance of it. (+info)
(2/741) Molecular cloning of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored molecule CDw108.
CDw108, also known as the John-Milton-Hagen human blood group Ag, is an 80-kDa glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane glycoprotein that is preferentially expressed on activated lymphocytes and E. The molecular characteristics and biological function of the CDw108 were not clarified previously. In this manuscript, we identify the cDNA clone containing the entire coding sequence of the CDw108 gene and report its molecular characteristics. The 1998-base pairs of the open reading frame of the cloned cDNA encoded a protein of 666 amino acids (aa), including the 46 aa of the signal peptide and the 19 aa of the GPI-anchor motif. Thus, the membrane-anchoring form of CDw108 was the 602 aa, and the estimated molecular mass of the unglycosylated form was 68 kDa. The RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) cell attachment sequence and the five potential N-linked glycosylation sites were located on the membrane-anchoring form. Flow cytometric and immunoprecipitation analyses of the CDw108 cDNA transfectants confirmed that the cloned cDNA encoded the native form of CDw108. The CDw108 mRNA was expressed in activated PBMCs as well as in the spleen, thymus, testis, placenta, and brain, but was not expressed in any other tissues tested. Radiation hybrid mapping indicated that the CDw108 gene was located in the middle of the long arm of chromosome 15 (15q23-24). This molecular information will be critical for understanding the biological function of the CDw108 Ag. (+info)
(3/741) Acquisition of human blood group antigens by Schistosoma mansoni.
Juvenile forms of Schistosoma mansoni (schistosomula) have been cultured in human blood of various specificities and tested for the presence of blood group substances on their surfaces. The tests employed were survival following transfer into rhesus monkeys immunized against human blood substances, mixed agglutination reactions, and immunofluorescence. A, B, H AND Lewisb+ antigens were expressed at the surface when the parasites were cultured in blood of appropriate specificities. Rhesus, M N S, AND Duffy antigens could not be detected on the parasite surface following culture. The evidence suggests that the expressed blood group antigens are of host origin and are acquired by the parasite during culture, probably in the form of glycolipids or megaloglycolipids. It is likely that these substances are also acquired by parasites in the bloodstream of man. They may serve to mask surface parasite antigens, and so enable schistosomes to evade parasite-specific humoral or cellular immune responses. (+info)
(4/741) The expression of human blood group antigens during erythropoiesis in a cell culture system.
Phenotypic analysis of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells has been an invaluable tool in defining the biology of stem cell populations. We use here flow cytometry to examine the expression of human erythroid-specific surface markers during the maturation of early committed erythroid cells derived from cord blood in vitro. The temporal order of the expression of erythroid specific markers was as follows: Kell glycoprotein (gp), Rh gp, Landsteiner Wiener (LW) gp, glycophorin A (GPA), Band 3, Lutheran (Lu) gp, and Duffy (Fy) gp. The time at which some of these markers appeared suggests possible roles for some of these erythroid-specific polypeptides during the differentiation of these committed progenitors. The early appearance of Kell gp raises the possibility that it may have an important role in the early stages of hematopoiesis or cell lineage determination. Kell gp may also be a useful marker for the diagnosis of erythroleukemia. The late expression of Lu gp suggests it may be involved in the migration of erythroid precursors from the marrow. Fy gp is also expressed late consistent with a role as a scavenger receptor for cytokines in the bone marrow and circulation. Rh c antigen appeared before Rh D antigen, and it is suggested that this may reflect a reorganization of the developing erythroid cell membrane involving the Rh polypeptides and other components, including GPA and Band 3. (+info)
(5/741) The LWb blood group as a marker of prehistoric Baltic migrations and admixture.
Archaeological findings and historical records indicate frequent migrations and exchange of genetic material between populations in the Baltic Sea area. However, there have so far been very few attempts to trace migrations in this area using genetic markers. We have studied the Baltic populations with respect to exceptional variations in the frequencies of the Landsteiner-Wiener (LW) blood group. The frequency of the uncommon LWb gene was high in the Balts, around 6% among Latvians and Lithuanians, very low among the other western Europeans (0-0.1%) and apparently absent in Asiatic and African populations. From the Baltic region of peak frequency there was a regular decline of LWb incidence (a descending cline) in the neighboring populations: 4.0% in the Estonians, 2.9% in the Finns, 2. 2% in the Vologda Russians, and 2.0% in the Poles. Thus the distribution of LWb suggests considerable and extensive Baltic admixture, especially in the north and northeast direction. In Southern Sweden with an LWb frequency of 0.3%, the Baltic influence appeared slight, while in the population of the Swedish island Gotland in the middle of the Baltic Sea there was a significantly increased LWb frequency of 1.0% compared with that of Western European countries. The distinction of codominantly inherited LW antigenic forms, LWa and LWb (previously Nea), is known to be due to a single base substitution. Based on our population data, it is plausible that the expansion of this point mutation occurred only once during human history. Furthermore, our data indicate that the expansion of the LWb mutation occurred in Balts and that LWb can be considered a 'Baltic tribal marker', its presence in other populations being an indicator of the degree of Baltic genetic influence. (+info)
(6/741) Studies on the structure and I-blood-group activity of poly(glycosyl)ceramides.
Employing a modified technique of acetolysis, which allows almost a complete recovery of constituent sugars from poly(glycosyl)ceramides, the glycolipids were found to contain an excess of N-acetylglucosamine over galactose. On the basis of Smith degradation, methylation study, chromium trioxide degradation and the structures of oligosaccharides released from the glycolipids by partial acid hydrolysis, the presence of two types of sugar sequences has been established in poly(glycosyl)ceramides: a) Galbeta1 leads to 4GlcNAcbeta1 leads to 6Gal3 comes from R1 b) Galbeta1 leads to 4GlcNAcbeta1 leads to 4GlcNAc1 leads to R2. The repeating unit of poly(glycosyl)ceramides seems to be the GlcNAcbeta1 leads to 3Gal sequence. The specificity of one anti-I serum (Woj) is directed against the non-reducing ending of the first kind of chain. Three other anti-I sera reacted with inner portions of the oligosaccharide chains of the glycolipids. (+info)
(7/741) Novel method for evaluation of the oligomeric structure of membrane proteins.
Assessment of the quaternary structure of membrane proteins by PAGE has been problematic owing to their relatively poor solubility in non-dissociative detergents. Here we report that several membrane proteins can be readily solubilized in their native quaternary structure with the use of the detergent perfluoro-octanoic acid (PFO). Further, PFO can be used with PAGE, thereby providing a novel, accessible tool with which to assess the molecular mass of homo-multimeric protein complexes. (+info)
(8/741) Interaction between cytochalasin B-treated malarial parasites and erythrocytes. Attachment and junction formation.
We have previously demonstrated that invasion of erythrocytes (RBCs) by malaria merozoites follows a sequence: recognition and attachment in an apical orientation associated with widespread deformation of the RBC, junction formation, movement of the junction around the merozoite that brings the merozoite into the invaginated RBC membrane, and sealing of the membrane. In the present paper, we describe a method for blocking invasion at an early stage in the sequence. Cytochalasin-treated merozoites attach specifically to host RBCs, most frequently by the apical region that contains specialized organelles (rhoptries) associated with invasion. The parasite then forms a junction between the apical region and the RBC. Cytochalasin blocks movement of this junction, a later step in invasion. Cytochalasin-treated (Plasmodium knowlesi) merozoites attach to Duffy-negative human RBCs, although these RBCs are resistant to invasion by the parasite. The attachment with these RBCs, however, differs from susceptible RBCs in that there is no junction formation. Therefore the Duffy associated antigen appears to be involved in junction formation, not initial attachment. (+info)