Changes in haematological parameters and iron metabolism associated with a 1600 kilometre ultramarathon.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate haematological variations and iron related changes in the serum of participants in a 1600 kilometre ultramarathon run. PARTICIPANTS: Seven male and two female participants in a 1600 km foot race. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from the participants before, after four and 11 days of running, and at the end of the event. Samples were analysed by standard methods for haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total red cell count, mean red cell volume, mean red cell haemoglobin, total white cell count and differential, platelets, reticulocytes, iron, ferritin, total iron binding capacity, percentage transferrin saturation, haptoglobin, and bilirubin and corrected for changes in plasma volume. RESULTS: The following variables decreased during the event (p < 0.05): haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean red cell volume, percentage lymphocytes, percentage monocytes, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, and percentage transferrin saturation. Increases (p < 0.05) were found in plasma volume, total red cell count (day 4 only), total white cell count, percentage and absolute numbers of neutrophils and reticulocytes, absolute numbers of lymphocytes and monocytes (day 4 only), absolute numbers of eosinophils (day 11 and race end), absolute numbers of basophils (race end only), platelets, ferritin, haptoglobin, and bilirubin (day 4 only). CONCLUSION: Ultramarathon running is associated with a wide range of changes in haematological parameters, many of which are related to the normal acute phase response to injury. These should not be confused with indicators of disease. (+info)
Cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations in horses competing in cross-country events.
The cardiovascular and metabolic response to two cross-country events (CC*: preliminary level and CC*** advanced level) were analysed in 8 male eventing horses (4 Anglo-Hunter and 4 Anglo-Arabian). This study focused on the establishment of the main metabolic pathways involved in the muscle energy resynthesis during the competitions. Heart rate (HR) was recorded throughout the CC events. Jugular venous blood samples were withdrawn before the warm-up period, immediately after the competitions and at 5 and 10 min in the recuperation period. The following haematological parameters were studied: red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), white blood cells (WBC), and number and percentages of lymphocytes (LYM) and granulocytes and monocytes (GRAN). One fraction of blood was centrifuged and, in plasma, lactate (LA), total plasma protein (TPP) and the rate of LA disappearance were determined. The competitions induced significant increases in RBC, Hb, PCV, MCV and TPP. Plasma LA response exceeded the anaerobic threshold of 4 mmol/l, reaching a maximum level of 13.3 mmol/l. HR ranged from 140 to more than 200 bpm, peaking at 230 bpm, revealing a limitation in the oxygen supply to the working muscles. It was concluded that muscle energy resynthesis during a CC event is provided both through oxidative processes and glycolysis with LA formation. Therefore, both stamina and power exercises are required for eventing horses. (+info)
Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and autoimmune thyroiditis in a boy with a ring chromosome 18: additional evidence of autoimmunity or IDDM gene(s) on chromosome 18.
A 4 year 3 month old boy with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), autoimmune thyroiditis, slight mental retardation, facial dysmorphism, and a de novo ring chromosome 18 (deletion 18q22.3-18qter) is described. This unique association of defects could represent a chance association. Alternatively, the clinical features could be the result of the chromosomal aberration. If so, one could speculate that a gene or genes on chromosome 18 might act as a suppressor or activator of the autoimmune process by itself or in concert with other IDDM loci. (+info)
Absent pituitary gland and hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis associated with partial ophthalmoplegia and postaxial polydactyly: a variant of orofaciodigital syndrome VI or a new syndrome?
We report two sibs with features overlapping those of orofaciodigital syndrome type VI (Varadi syndrome). Both presented at birth with oculomotor abnormalities, dysmorphic facial features, and dysgenesis of the cerebellar vermis. There were minimal oral manifestations (high arched palate) in both of them and one had postaxial polydactyly of both hands and one foot. In addition, there was evidence of aplasia of the pituitary gland on MRI scan in both of them with evidence of hypopituitarism. Both responded well to hormone replacement therapy with improvement in their linear growth and mental ability. These cases may represent a new autosomal recessive midline defect syndrome with features overlapping OFDS VI. Alternatively the features in these children could represent variability within OFDS VI. (+info)
A three-month repeated oral administration study of a low viscosity grade of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose in rats.
The toxicity of the lowest viscosity grade of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) that is currently commercially available was investigated by means of a three-month repeated oral administration study in male and female Crj:CD (SD) IGS rats at doses of 505, 1,020 and 2,100 mg/kg/day. Body weights of males and females in the 2,100 mg/kg group were lower than those of the control group on and after day 28 of administration, but the differences were not statistically significant. The degree of suppression of body weight gain in males was higher than that in females. This tendency was similar to the results in other toxicity studies of HPMC that have been reported. Males in the 2,100 mg/kg group showed a tendency (not significant) for decreased food consumption and urine volume. Examinations of general signs, hematology, blood chemistry, ophthalmology, absolute and relative organ weights, autopsy and histopathology revealed only a few, apparently coincidental, statistically significant differences from the control, and no evidence of any dose-dependent changes was found. It was concluded that the lowest viscosity grade of HPMC showed extremely low toxicity under the conditions of this study, as has been found for higher viscosity grades. (+info)
Changes in physiological parameters and feeding behaviour of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar infected with sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis.
Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. artificially infected with salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Kroyer 1837) recovered from detrimental physiological changes and skin damage induced by preadult lice as the parasites matured. Growth rates of Atlantic salmon remained unaffected by lice infection, but food consumption decreased with increasing feeding and movement of the lice prior to and post-mating, correlating with the appearance of head erosions and detrimental changes in physiological integrity. Food consumption of the fish increased as the lice moulted to the adult stage and gravid female lice settled in a posterior location on the fish, subsequently reducing the impact of infection and allowing recovery of the skin damage. However, the impact of preadults was limited, as the decrease in food consumption of fish at 21 d post-infection had no effect on either the specific growth rate or condition factor of the fish. Furthermore, the intensity of lice infections at each of the sample days was not correlated with food consumption, specific growth rate or any of the haematological or physiological parameters measured, either before or after infection, indicating that lice intensity was independent of social dominance/subordinance. This work has provided the first evidence that infected fish can recover from the detrimental changes caused by lice infection, even when they are still infected with lice. If fish can survive the preadult stage of lice, then the mortal impact of lice infections is greatly reduced. (+info)
Anthropometric, lifestyle and metabolic determinants of resting heart rate. A population study.
AIM: To clarify the determinants of resting heart rate at the population level in a random sample of the Belgian population. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data of 5027 men and 4150 women aged 25-74 years obtained from a Belgian nationwide survey were analysed. In multivariate analysis, blood pressure strongly correlated with heart rate in men (t = 12.4 for systolic; t = 8.8 for diastolic) and women (t = 12.0 for systolic; t = 7.7 for diastolic). Age (t = -3.4 in men; t = -8.1 in women) and height (t = -3.7 in men; t = -3.1 in women) correlated negatively with heart rate. Smoking raised heart rate in men (1-19 cigarettes.day-1, t = 6.1; > or = 20 cigarettes.day-1, t = 10.3) and women (> or = 20 cigarettes.day-1, t = 3.5). Serum phosphorus correlated negatively with heart rate (t = -3.5 in men; t = -8.3 in women). Serum log alkaline phosphatase (t = 6.7 in men; t = 7.2 in women) and serum protein (t = 5.3 in men; t = 4.4 in women) correlated positively with heart rate. CONCLUSION: At the population level, blood pressure, cigarette smoking, serum alkaline phosphatase and serum protein correlate independently, significantly and positively with heart rate, and age, height and serum phosphorus negatively. (+info)
Randomized prospective study comparing cost-effectiveness of teicoplanin and vancomycin as second-line empiric therapy for infection in neutropenic patients.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The current health-care philosophy dictates that new therapies should always be evaluated for their economic impact. Along with acquisition cost, the cost of delivery, monitoring, adverse effects and treatment failure must also be considered when determining the total cost of therapy. These auxiliary costs can be significant and greatly alter the overall cost of a drug treatment. We conducted a prospective randomized study to evaluate the efficacy, safety and cost of vancomycin and teicoplanin therapy in patients with neutropenia, after the failure of empirical treatment with a combination of piperacillin/tazobactam and amikacin. DESIGN AND METHODS: Seventy-six febrile episodes from 66 patients with hematologic malignancies under treatment, neutropenia (neutrophils <500/mm3) and fever (38 degrees C twice or 38.5 degrees C once) resistant to the combination piperacillin/tazobactam and amikacin were included in the study. RESULTS: Primary success of second-line therapy was obtained in 35 cases (46%) with no significant difference between vancomycin (17/38) and teicoplanin arms (18/38). No difference in renal or hepatic toxicity related to the antibiotic therapy was observed. The average cost per patient according to glycopeptide used was $450+/-180 for the teicoplanin group and $473+/-347 for the vancomycin group. Interestingly, in the teicoplanin arm, drug acquisition accounted for 97% of the total cost, while in the vancomycin arm administration and monitoring play an important role in overall costs. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our pharmacoeconomic analysis demonstrates that teicoplanin and vancomycin can be administered in neutropenic hematologic patients with similar efficacy and direct costs. (+info)