Oblique pelvic osteotomy in the exstrophy/epispadias complex.
(9/48)We reviewed retrospectively 45 patients (46 procedures) with bladder exstrophy treated by bilateral oblique pelvic osteotomy in conjunction with genitourinary repair. The operative technique and post-operative management with or without external fixation are described. A total of 21 patients attended a special follow-up clinic and 24 were interviewed by telephone. The mean follow-up time was 57 months (24 to 108). Of the 45 patients, 42 reported no pain or functional disability, although six had a waddling gait and two had marked external rotation of the hip. Complications included three cases of infection and loosening of the external fixator requiring early removal with no deleterious effect. Mid-line closure failed in one neonate managed in plaster. This patient underwent a successful revision procedure several months later using repeat osteotomies and external fixation. The percentage pubic approximation was measured on anteroposterior radiographs pre-operatively, post-operatively and at final follow-up. The mean approximation was 37% (12% to 76%). It varied markedly with age and was better when external fixation was used. The wide range reflects the inability of the anterior segment to develop naturally in spite of close approximation at operation. We conclude that bilateral oblique pelvic osteotomy with or without external fixation is useful in the management of difficult primary closure in bladder exstrophy, failed primary closure and secondary reconstruction. (+info)
DeltaNp63 plays an anti-apoptotic role in ventral bladder development.
(10/48)The bladder, the largest smooth-muscle organ in the human body, is responsible for urine storage and micturition. P63, a homolog of the p53 tumor-suppressor gene, is essential for the development of all stratified epithelia, including the bladder urothelium. The N-terminal truncated isoform of p63, DeltaNp63, is known to have anti-apoptotic characteristics. We have established that DeltaNp63 is not only the predominant isoform expressed throughout the bladder, but is also preferentially expressed in the ventral bladder urothelium during early development. We observed a host of ventral defects in p63-/- embryos, including the absence of the abdominal and ventral bladder walls. This number of ventral defects is identical to bladder exstrophy, a congenital anomaly exhibited in human neonates. In the absence of p63, the ventral urothelium was neither committed nor differentiated, whereas the dorsal urothelium was both committed and differentiated. Furthermore, in p63-/- bladders, apoptosis in the ventral urothelium was significantly increased. This was accompanied by the upregulation of mitochondrial apoptotic mediators Bax and Apaf1, and concurrent upregulation of p53. Overexpression of DeltaNp63gamma and DeltaNp63beta in p63-/- bladder primary cell cultures resulted in a rescue, evidenced by significantly reduced expressions of Bax and Apaf1. We conclude that DeltaNp63 plays a crucial anti-apoptotic role in normal bladder development. (+info)
OEIS complex: prenatal ultrasound and autopsy findings.
(11/48)OBJECTIVE: To describe prenatal ultrasound and autopsy findings in fetuses with OEIS (omphalocele, bladder exstrophy, imperforate anus, spina bifida) complex. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of the nine cases with OEIS complex diagnosed at our center using detailed fetal ultrasound during the last 10 years. We summarized the fetal ultrasound findings that led to the diagnosis and compared them with the autopsy results. RESULTS: All affected fetuses were diagnosed using detailed fetal ultrasound after 16 weeks' gestation. The main prenatal findings were omphalocele, skin-covered lumbosacral neural tube defect, non-visualized bladder and limb defects. Prenatal sonography failed to detect the abnormal genitalia, bladder exstrophy and anal atresia. All cases had abnormalities in a 'diaper distribution', which helped in making the prenatal diagnosis. Eight of the nine couples chose to terminate the pregnancies following multidisciplinary counseling. The pregnancy that was continued was a case with dizygotic twins discordant for OEIS, and the affected fetus died in utero. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of the following ultrasound findings: ventral wall defect, spinal defect and a non-visualized bladder with or without limb defects, are characteristic of OEIS complex. Diagnosis can be made with confidence as early as 16 weeks' gestation, although earlier diagnosis may be possible. (+info)
Salvage reconstructive surgery in an adult patient with failed previous repair of an extrophy-epispadias complex. An operation with a functional and aesthetic purpose.
(12/48)Salvage surgical procedures after failed reconstruction for an extrophy-epispadias complex are extremely challenging. The goals are to restore continence and improve aesthetic appearance in order to provide quality of life and an improved body image to the patient. We describe the surgical steps in an adult patient who presented anal urinary incontinence and a poor body image due to the absence of an umbilicus and the presence of hypertrophic scars. He underwent a modified Mainz II reconstruction of the lower urinary tract at childhood for an extrophy-epispadias complex. Restoration of continence was achieved by the construction of a modified Mainz I pouch with a continent stoma in a neo-umbilicus. Body image improved dramatically by the construction of a neo-umbilicus, a surgical revision of the hypertrophic abdominal scars and an abdominoplasty. It is mandatory that such demanding surgery should only be attempted as a combined multidisciplinary effort with urologists and plastic/reconstructive surgeons. (+info)
Epidemiological survey of 214 families with bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex.
Imaging of the fetal bony pelvis by computed tomography in a case of bladder exstrophy.
Horizontal pelvic osteotomies for bladder exstrophy. A preliminary report.
(15/48)We have treated 11 patients aged three days to 15 years with bladder exstrophy by horizontal osteotomies of the innominate bones. The operation was originally used for older patients with severe deformity or failed previous surgery but is now applied as a primary procedure in the first week of life. The osteotomies enable the complex malformations to be corrected in a single operation without turning the patient: the pubic bones can be brought together, the abdominal wall repaired and the bladder closed with reconstruction of the urethra and external genitalia. The early results have been very satisfactory in all cases with only minor complications; we felt that a preliminary report should be made, despite a mean follow-up of only seven months. (+info)
Biometry of the pubovisceral muscle and levator hiatus assessed by three-dimensional ultrasound in females with bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex after functional reconstruction.