(1/481) A possible contributory role of BK virus infection in neuroblastoma development.
The tumor suppressor protein p53 is aberrantly localized to the cytoplasm of neuroblastoma cells, compromising the suppressor function of this protein. Such tumors are experimentally induced in transgenic mice expressing the large tumor (T) antigen of polyomaviruses. The oncogenic mechanisms of T antigen include complex formation with, and inactivation of, the tumor suppressor protein p53. Samples from 18 human neuroblastomas and five normal human adrenal glands were examined. BK virus DNA was detected in all neuroblastomas and none of five normal adrenal glands by PCR. Using DNA in situ hybridization, polyomaviral DNA was found in the tumor cells of 17 of 18 neuroblastomas, but in none of five adrenal medullas. Expression of the large T antigen was detected in the tumor cells of 16 of 18 neuroblastomas, but in none of the five adrenal medullas. By double immunostaining BK virus T antigen and p53 was colocalized to the cytoplasm of the tumor cells. Immunoprecipitation revealed binding between the two proteins. The presence and expression of BK virus in neuroblastomas, but not in normal adrenal medulla, and colocalization and binding to p53, suggest that this virus may play a contributory role in the development of this neoplasm. (+info)
(2/481) Concerted expression of BK virus large T- and small t-antigens strongly enhances oestrogen receptor-mediated transcription.
Previous studies have shown that the human polyomavirus BK (BKV) genome contains an oestrogen response element (ERE). This isolated element binds its cognate receptor in vitro and can mediate 17beta-oestradiol-induced gene expression when linked to a heterologous promoter. The roles of the ERE- and the AP-1-binding sites in oestrogen receptor-directed transcription from the complete BKV promoter/enhancer (Dunlop strain) have been examined and the effects of the general co-activator CBP and large T- and small t-antigens on oestrogen receptor-mediated transcription have been investigated. A constitutive activated oestrogen receptor stimulated BKV promoter activity in HeLa cells. Mutations in either the ERE- or the AP-1-binding sites did not impair oestrogen receptor-induced activation of the BKV Dunlop promoter, while mutations in both binding motifs almost completely abolished oestrogen receptor-induced transcription. Simultaneous expression of large T- and small t-antigens strongly activated oestrogen receptor-mediated transcription. When expressed separately, only large T-antigen moderately stimulated oestrogen receptor-mediated transcription. The stimulatory effect of large T-antigen on the activity of the oestrogen receptor is probably indirect because no physical interaction between the two proteins was detected in a two-hybrid assay. Large T-antigen abrogated the synergistic effect on transcription between this nuclear receptor and the general co-activator CBP. The findings that the BKV early proteins amplify oestrogen receptor-mediated transcription may have important biological implications in individuals with raised oestrogen concentrations. (+info)
(3/481) Morphological, histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural characterization of tumors and dysplastic and non-neoplastic lesions arising in BK virus/tat transgenic mice.
To study the role in AIDS pathogenesis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein, a transactivator of viral and cellular genes, we generated transgenic mice with a recombinant DNA containing BK virus (BKV) early region and the HIV-1 tat gene, directed by its own promoter-enhancer. DNA hybridization revealed that the transgene is stably maintained in all organs of transgenic mice as a tandem insertion in a number of copies ranging from 5 to 20 per cell. In addition, tat and BKV RNA were expressed in all tissues. Transgenic mice developed three types of lesions: 1) tumors, 2) hyperplastic and dysplastic lesions, and 3) non-neoplastic lesions. Tumors of different histotypes, such as lymphomas, adenocarcinomas of skin glands, leiomyosarcomas, skin squamous cell carcinomas, hepatomas, hepatocarcinomas, and cavernous liver hemangiomas, developed in 29% of transgenic animals. The majority of tumors were malignant, invasive, and producing metastases. Conversely, tumors of only two histotypes (lymphomas and adenocarcinomas of skin glands) appeared in control mice. Hyperplastic and dysplastic lesions were more frequent in transgenic than in control mice and involved the skin or its adnexes, the liver and the rectum, indicating multiple targets for the activity of the transgene. Pyelonephritis, frequently complicated with hydronephrosis, inflammatory eye lesions, and amyloid depositions represented the most frequent non-neoplastic lesions detected in transgenic mice. Many of the pathological findings observed in this animal model are comparable to similar lesions appearing in AIDS patients, suggesting a relevant role for Tat in the pathogenesis of such lesions during the course of AIDS. (+info)
(4/481) BK and JC viruses in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: prevalent and persistent BK viruria, sequence stability of the viral regulatory regions, and nondetectable viremia.
A role for polyomaviruses in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been suggested. BK virus (BKV) and JC virus (JCV) were demonstrated in single urine specimens from 7 (16%) of 44 and 5 (11%) of 44 patients with SLE and 0/88 and 18 (21%) of 88 matched healthy controls, respectively. During a 1-year follow-up study, episodes of polyomaviruria were detected in 16 (80%) of 20 patients, BKV in 13, and JCV in 3 patients. A group of 12 (60%) of 20 patients demonstrated persistent or recurrent polyomaviruria, BKV viruria (n=9), or JCV viruria (n=3) in 180 (70%) of 256 specimens. Polyomaviruria was not significantly associated with immunosuppressive therapy. The BKV and JCV isolates revealed predominantly stable archetypal regulatory regions over 3 years, indicating viral persistence rather than reinfection as a cause for urinary shedding. The demonstration of nondetectable viremia and stable archetypal BKV and JCV noncoding control regions during persistent viruria argue against the urinary tract as a focus for the creation of rearranged regulatory region variants. (+info)
(5/481) JC and BK virus sequences are not detectable in leukaemic samples from children with common acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
Epidemiological evidence suggests that childhood leukaemia, and possibly common acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in particular, may have an infectious aetiology. Smith (1997 J Immunother 20: 89-100) recently suggested that the critical infectious event occurs during pregnancy, and identified the polyoma virus JC as a candidate agent. In the present study we investigated whether genomes from the JC virus, and closely related BK virus, could be detected in leukaemic cells. No positive results were obtained suggesting that JC virus is unlikely to play a direct role in leukaemogenesis. (+info)
(6/481) Comparison of antibody titers determined by hemagglutination inhibition and enzyme immunoassay for JC virus and BK virus.
A comparison of antibody titers to JC virus (JCV) or BK virus (BKV) was made by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with 114 human plasma samples. Antibody titers to JCV or BKV determined by HI were lower than those determined by EIA. Nevertheless, as HI titers increased so did EIA titers. When antibody data were compared by the Spearman rank correlation test, highly significant correlations were found between HI and EIA titers. Results obtained by plotting EIA antibody titers for JCV against those for BKV generally showed a reciprocal relationship, i.e., samples with high antibody titers to JCV had lower antibody titers to BKV and vice versa. Some samples, however, had antibody titers to both viruses. Of the samples tested, 25.4% (25 of 114) had HI and EIA antibody titers to JCV and BKV which were identical or closely related. This is not the scenario one would expect for cross-reactive epitopes shared by the two viruses, but one suggesting that these samples were from individuals who had experienced infections by both viruses. Adsorption with concentrated JCV or BKV antigen of sera with high antibody titers to both JCV and BKV and testing by JCV and BKV EIA gave results which support this conclusion. Although 52.6% (51 of 97) of the samples from the Japanese population tested had very high antibody titers (>/=40,960) to either JCV or BKV, none of the samples were found by a dot blot immunoassay to have antibodies which cross-reacted with simian virus 40. The results from this study, in agreement with those of others, suggest that humans infected by JCV or BKV produce antibodies to species-specific epitopes on their VP1 capsid protein, which is associated with hemagglutination and cellular binding. (+info)
(7/481) Polyomaviruria in renal transplant patients is not correlated to the cold ischemia period or to rejection episodes.
Polyomaviruria was observed in one-third of all renal transplant patients, irrespective of whether their renal grafts came from a living or cadaver donor, and was not correlated to graft rejection episodes. This suggests that the renal graft ischemia period is not the major cause of polyomavirus reactivation and that reactivation of polyomavirus is not a dominant cause of graft rejection. (+info)
(8/481) Documenting the epidemiologic patterns of polyomaviruses in human populations by studying their presence in urban sewage.
This is the first description, to our knowledge, of the distribution of human polyomavirus and simian virus 40 (SV40) in urban sewage. Using a nested-PCR procedure, we report the detection of human polyomaviruses JC virus (JCV) and BK virus (BKV) but not SV40 in a high percentage of urban sewage samples obtained from widely divergent geographical areas in Europe and Africa. For a total of 28 samples analyzed, JCV was detected in 26, BKV was detected in 22, and none was positive for SV40. All geographical areas showed a high prevalence of these viruses with mean estimated values of JC viral particles per ml on the order of 10(3) in Barcelona (Spain) and Nancy (France) and 10(2) in Pretoria (South Africa) and Umea (Sweden) and mean values of BK viral particles on the order of 10(2) in Pretoria and Barcelona and 10(1) in Nancy and Umea. This compares with estimated mean values of 10(2) to 10(3) for human adenovirus that was evaluated as a control. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the amplified DNA from some of the samples is also presented and represents the sequence of the most abundant JC and BK viral strains in these samples. The nucleotide sequence of the JCV detected was also analyzed in a phylogenetic study and for genomic characterization in the regulatory region. This study has shown that human polyomaviruses are spread in high concentrations in the sewage of different geographical areas and are present in contaminated environments. The frequency and concentration of JCV detected in the environment and the absence of described animal hosts suggest that JCV may be useful as a marker for fecal pollution of anthropogenic origin. The results also support the idea previously described that the strains of JCV are closely related to the ethnic origin of the population studied. The procedure applied should also be useful in future studies of population patterns of viral excretion and as a tool in epidemiological studies for the detection of changes in the prevalence of specific viral pathogens. (+info)