Endemic paragonimiasis in Africa.
(9/11)Human paragonimiasis has been recorded in 4 West African countries but there is clear evidence of endemicity only in certain parts of Nigeria and Cameroon. In Nigeria, the dominant parasite species is Paragonimus uterobilateralis, while in Cameroon it is P. africanus. Both the fresh water crab Sudanonautes africanus and the land crab S. aubryi are proved vectors in Nigeria. Epidemiological studies using Paragonimus skin tests suggest an infection rate of between 5% and 10% in some endemic areas. African paragonimiasis, like its Asian counterpart, responds well to treatment with bithionol. (+info)
Metabolic detoxication of bis-(2-hydroxy-3, 5-dichlorophenyl)-sulfoxide in man.
(10/11)The metabolic detoxication of bis(2-hydroxy-3, 5-dichlorophenyl)sulfoxide (BTS) in man was investigated. Bis(2-hydroxy-3, 5-dichlorophenyl)sulfide (BT) was identified in beta-glucuronidase treated urine following the administration of BTS by thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, ultraviolet spectrum and quantitative analysis. No other metabolites were detectable. BT-glucuronide was also identified in urine. It was assumed that BTS was reduced to BT and successively conjugated with glucuronide in man, and excreted as BT-glucuronide in the urine. (+info)
Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of excretory secretory antigens in humans with fascioliasis.
(11/11)A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay has been developed for the detection of Fasciola hepatica excretory secretory (ES) antigens in stool specimens of infected humans. The assay uses antibodies against F. hepatica ES antigens. A monoclonal antibody (ES78, mouse immunoglobulin G2a) was used to capture ES antigens, and a rabbit polyclonal antibody, peroxidase conjugate, was used to identify ES antigens. Thirteen of 14 patients with parasitological evidence of fascioliasis had a detectable concentration of ES antigens (more than 15 ng/ml). None of the stool specimens from controls and from patients with parasites other than F. hepatica showed a positive reaction, suggesting the absence of cross-reactions in this assay. When the 14 patients were retested 2 months after treatment, all of the specimens from the 11 parasitologically cured patients were negative by the antigen detection assay while the specimens from the 3 patients with persisting F. hepatica eggs in their stools remained positive. (+info)