(1/504) Determinants of antibodies to Cryptosporidium infection among gay and bisexual men with HIV infection.

A cross-sectional serosurvey for markers of prior Cryptosporidium infection was conducted among homosexual or bisexual males infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); of 262 individuals approached, 236 (90%) agreed to participate. Serological response to two Cryptosporidium antigens was measured using a Western blot assay. The intensity or detection of serological responses to two Cryptosporidium antigens was not associated with CD4 cell counts or tap water consumption. A number of sexual practices were related to increased serological response for only the 27-kDa marker, including having had sex within the past 2 years, having anal sex and having had a larger number of sex partners during the past 2 years. Attending a spa or sauna was related to serological response to both the 27-kDa and 17-kDa markers. Based on these results, activities related to sexual activity appear to be a significant risk factors for prior Cryptosporidium infection.  (+info)

(2/504) Sexual intercourse, abuse and pregnancy among adolescent women: does sexual orientation make a difference?

CONTEXT: Although a limited amount of research has retrospectively explored the childhood and adolescent heterosexual experiences of lesbians, little is known about the prevalence of heterosexual behavior and related risk factors or about pregnancy histories among lesbian and bisexual teenagers. METHODS: A secondary analysis was conducted using responses from a subsample of 3,816 students who completed the 1987 Minnesota Adolescent Health Survey. Behaviors, risk factors and pregnancy histories were compared among adolescents who identified themselves as lesbian or bisexual, as unsure of their sexual orientation and as heterosexual. RESULTS: Overall, bisexual or lesbian respondents were about as likely as heterosexual women ever to have had intercourse (33% and 29%, respectively), but they had a significantly higher prevalence of pregnancy (12%) and physical or sexual abuse (19-22%) than heterosexual or unsure adolescents. Among sexually experienced respondents, bisexual or lesbian and heterosexual women reported greater use of ineffective contraceptives (12-15% of those who used a method) than unsure adolescents (9%); bisexual or lesbian respondents were the most likely to have frequent intercourse (22%, compared with 15-17% of the other groups). In the sample overall, among those who were sexually experienced and among those who had ever been pregnant, bisexual or lesbian women were the most likely to have engaged in prostitution during the previous year. CONCLUSIONS: Providers of reproductive health care and family planning services should not assume that pregnant teenagers are heterosexual or that adolescents who say they are bisexual, lesbian or unsure of their sexual orientation are not in need of family planning counseling. Further research should explore the interactions between adolescent sexual identity development and sexual risk behaviors.  (+info)

(3/504) Developing surveillance for HIV transmission and risk behaviours among high-risk groups in a central London health district.

BACKGROUND: Our aim was to describe surveillance data on HIV transmission and risk behaviours in Camden and Islington, an inner London health district (population 360 000). This information is required to assess the effectiveness of HIV-AIDS prevention. METHODS: We focused on two groups in the local population most severely affected by the HIV epidemic: homosexual and bisexual men, and injecting drug users. Data were drawn from routine and survey data, national and local sources, and a special local survey. RESULTS: There were estimated to be 9250 homosexual men, with an estimated prevalence of 7.7 per cent (confidence interval (CI) 5.9-11.0) diagnosed with HIV infection resident within the health district, and 9900 injecting drug users, with an estimated prevalence of 0.8 per cent (CI 0.6-1.1), diagnosed with HIV infection. New HIV infections diagnosed amongst homosexual men having a named test in HIV testing services averaged 281 and was unchanged between 1992 and 1996. However, unlinked anonymous seroprevalence surveys showed a decline in HIV prevalence for both homosexual men attending a genito-urinary medicine clinic and for injecting drug users attending services. Local surveys indicated that, in the preceeding year, one in three homosexual men had had unprotected anal intercourse with a man, and 13 per cent of intravenous drug users had shared equipment. There appeared to be no change in these levels over the years studied. CONCLUSION: Population-based information on HIV is available at local level in England. It can be used for surveillance of HIV transmission and behaviour in high-risk groups, especially homosexual and bisexual men and intravenous drug users. Resources for HIV prevention are provided to all NHS districts, and surveillance is a cost-effective measure of the outcome of HIV prevention.  (+info)

(4/504) Serologic evidence of human herpesvirus 8 transmission by homosexual but not heterosexual sex.

Epidemiologic studies link Kaposi's sarcoma with a sexually transmitted agent. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is likely to be that agent, but routes of transmission are poorly described. A seroepidemiologic study was conducted to determine whether HHV-8 is transmitted sexually between heterosexuals. Sera from 2718 patients attending a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic were tested for antibodies to HHV-8 and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Information on sex partners in the previous 12 months and past STDs were obtained by questionnaire. Relationships between possible risk factors and HHV-8 infection were assessed by logistic regression. Overall, seroprevalence of HHV-8 was 7.3%. Independent risk factors for HHV-8 in the whole group were homo/bisexuality and birth in Africa and, among homo/bisexual men, a history of syphilis and HSV-2 and human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity. Among heterosexuals there was no evidence for sexual transmission; the only independent risk factor for HHV-8 seropositivity was birth in Africa.  (+info)

(5/504) Chemokine receptor polymorphisms and human immunodeficiency virus disease progression.

The role of polymorphisms in genes encoding chemokines and their receptors (CCR2B, SDF-1, and the promoter region of CCR5) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression was studied in 132 white HIV type 1 (HIV-1)-infected participants from a United Kingdom cohort study. Genotyping was done by use of amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the impact of polymorphisms on time to a CD4 cell count <200x106/L and to CDC stage IV disease. The results confirm a significant association of the CCR2B-64I mutant genotype with slower progression to a CD4 count <200 (hazards ratio [HR], 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17-0.91) but not with the SDF-1alpha 3' UTR homozygous mutation. The effects of the CCR5 and CCR2 mutations were genetically independent and similar in the magnitude of their protective effect on progression to a CD4 count <200 cells. A novel finding was an association of borderline significance between homozygosity for C at nucleotide position 59353 in the CCR5 promoter region and a slower rate of CD4 cell decline to <200x106/L (HR, 0. 58; 95% CI, 0.34-0.996).  (+info)

(6/504) Complex transmission dynamics of clonally related virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis associated with barhopping by predominantly human immunodeficiency virus-positive gay men.

Limited data suggest that measures to reduce tuberculosis transmission should be based on locations rather than on personal contacts. Molecular epidemiologic methods (analysis of IS6110 patterns, spoligotypes, variable numbers of tandem DNA repeats, and automated DNA sequence data) identified a cohort of 48 persons who were infected with progeny of the same Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain. Epidemiologic investigation documented that a large proportion of the patients were gay white human immunodeficiency virus-positive men. Most practiced barhopping, an activity that involved patronizing many bars in the same neighborhood each night. Few subjects were directly linked to more than 1 or 2 other persons by conventional investigation methods, which shows that the transmission dynamics were unusually complex compared with most previously described episodes of strain spread. The data support the concept that identification of locations where pathogen dissemination likely occurs may provide additional strategies for targeted tuberculosis control.  (+info)

(7/504) Sexual and drug-use risk factors for HIV and STDs: a comparison of women with and without bisexual experiences.

OBJECTIVES: This study was done to compare risk factors for HIV/STDs in women who reported having had sex with both men and women and women who reported having had sex with men only. METHODS: Female participants in a multisite, randomized HIV/STD prevention study in the Seattle area reported both having had sex with a man in the 3 months before and having at least 1 risk factor for HIV/STDs during the year before the study. Of these women, 38% who reported ever having had sex with a woman were compared with those who reported having had sex with men only. RESULTS: Women who had had sex with both men and women were more likely than women who had had sex with men only to report drug use in the 3 months before the study, a greater lifetime number of male partners, a sex partner who had had sex with a prostitute, an earlier age at sexual debut, and forced sexual contact (P < .01 for all comparisons). Women who had had sex with both men and women had a mean of 3.2 of these 5 risk factors, vs 2.1 among women who had had sex with men only (P < .001). CONCLUSION: Women who had had sex with both men and women were more likely than women who had had sex with men only to engage in multiple risk behaviors. Health workers should be aware of bisexual experience among women, since this may be a marker for multiple risk behaviors for HIV/STDs.  (+info)

(8/504) Cigarette smoking among gay and bisexual men.

OBJECTIVES: This study measured the prevalence of cigarette smoking among gay men and identified associations with smoking. METHODS: Household-based (n = 696) and bar-based (n = 1897) sampling procedures yielded 2593 gay male participants from Portland, Ore, and Tucson, Ariz, in the spring of 1992. RESULTS: Forty-eight percent of the combined sample reported current smoking, a rate far above prevalence estimates for men in Arizona (z = 14.11, P < .001) or Oregon (z = 24.24, P < .001). Significant associations with smoking included heavy drinking, frequent gay bar attendance, greater AIDS-related losses, HIV seropositivity, lower health rating than members of same age cohort, lower educational attainment, and lower income. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of cigarette smoking are very high among gay men. Tobacco prevention and cessation campaigns should be designed to reach the gay male community.  (+info)