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(1/130) Effect of mode of delivery in nulliparous women on neonatal intracranial injury.

BACKGROUND: Infants delivered by vacuum extraction or other operative techniques may be more likely to sustain major injuries than those delivered spontaneously, but the extent of the risk is unknown. METHODS: From a California data base, we identified 583,340 live-born singleton infants born to nulliparous women between 1992 and 1994 and weighing between 2500 and 4000 g. One third of the infants were delivered by operative techniques. We evaluated the relation between the mode of delivery and morbidity in the infants. RESULTS: Intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 1 of 860 infants delivered by vacuum extraction, 1 of 664 delivered with the use of forceps, 1 of 907 delivered by cesarean section during labor, 1 of 2750 delivered by cesarean section with no labor, and 1 of 1900 delivered spontaneously. As compared with the infants delivered spontaneously, those delivered by vacuum extraction had a significantly higher rate of subdural or cerebral hemorrhage (odds ratio, 2.7; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.9 to 3.9), as did the infants delivered with the use of forceps (odds ratio, 3.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.9 to 5.9) or cesarean section during labor (odds ratio, 2.5; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.8 to 3.4), but the rate of subdural or cerebral hemorrhage associated with vacuum extraction did not differ significantly from that associated with forceps use (odds ratio for the comparison with vacuum extraction, 1.2; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.7 to 2.2) or cesarean section during labor (odds ratio, 0.9; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.6 to 1.4). CONCLUSIONS: The rate of intracranial hemorrhage is higher among infants delivered by vacuum extraction, forceps, or cesarean section during labor than among infants delivered spontaneously, but the rate among infants delivered by cesarean section before labor is not higher, suggesting that the common risk factor for hemorrhage is abnormal labor.  (+info)

(2/130) Chiari malformation and syringomyelia in monozygotic twins: birth injury as a possible cause of syringomyelia--case report.

A 26-year-old female, the elder of monozygotic twins, presented with slow progressive numbness and pain in her left arm. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed syringomyelia with Chiari malformation. The patient's birth had been difficult with prolonged delivery time, breech delivery, and neonatal asphyxia. MR imaging of the patient's twin sister showed mild tonsillar ectopia, but absence of syringomyelia. This younger sister was born without problems. The patient underwent syringosubarachnoid shunt at the C5-6 level. The syrinx was collapsed promptly, and her symptoms disappeared. This case of syringomyelia with Chiari malformation in one of twins suggests that birth injury is likely to be a cause of the pathogenesis of syringomyelia.  (+info)

(3/130) The problem of obstetrical complications and schizophrenia.

The use of the term "obstetrical complications" (OCs) and its variations to encompass diverse physiological mechanisms (e.g., genetic, ischemic, hemorrhagic, infectious) of disruption to fetal/neonatal brain development has engendered inconsistency, confusion, and controversy. The principal reason is that the term OCs belies the absence of a fully adequate conceptual framework for characterizing neurodevelopmental risk. We propose that neurodevelopmental risk factors for schizophrenia can be assessed more clearly if broad OC scales are replaced by measures representing more homogeneous pathways of disturbed brain development. Using a new OC classification, we found that disordered growth related to hypoxic-ischemic compromise to early brain development may confer an elevated risk of schizophrenia and other adult-onset psychoses, particularly in the presence of familial risk. Abnormal fetal and neonatal brain growth and development in schizophrenia and OCs may also, at least in part, result from genetic factors and could help explain the relation between seemingly inconsistent OCs identified in prior research.  (+info)

(4/130) The relationship of prenatal and perinatal complications to cognitive functioning at age 7 in the New England Cohorts of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project.

Previous literature shows that children who later develop schizophrenia have elevated rates of prenatal and perinatal complications (PPCs) and neuropsychological deficits in childhood. However, little is known about the relationship of these risk factors to each other. We evaluated the relationship between PPCs and neuropsychological functioning at age 7 in a large epidemiological study of pregnancy, birth, and development: the National Collaborative Perinatal Project (NCPP). Thirteen standardized measures of cognitive abilities were acquired on 11,889 children at approximately age 7. Principal components analysis was used to create three neuropsychological measures: academic achievement skills, verbal-conceptual abilities, and perceptual-motor abilities. We measured the relationship between these factors and three measures of PPCs: low birth weight (LBW), probable hypoxicischemic complications, and chronic hypoxia. All three measures of PPCs were significantly associated with lower neuropsychological performance, after controlling for various confounders. LBW had the strongest association with neuropsychological performance, followed by an index of presumed hypoxic insults. The effect sizes between PPCs and cognitive factors at age 7 were consistently largest with perceptual-motor abilities, followed by academic achievement skills and verbal-conceptual abilities. Future studies will evaluate the effects of specific PPCs and genetic risk factors for psychosis on cognitive functioning in childhood.  (+info)

(5/130) Maternal recall of pregnancy history: accuracy and bias in schizophrenia research.

Most investigations that report a positive association between obstetric complications and schizophrenia have been case-control studies that are often based on long-term maternal recall of events during pregnancy. We tested the hypothesis that mothers of adult offspring with schizophrenia or other psychoses systematically overreport obstetric complications compared with mothers of unaffected offspring. Subjects were selected from the New England cohorts of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project, a large prospective cohort with well-documented records of pregnancy and delivery. Mothers of 39 offspring with psychosis and 39 control offspring were recontacted and completed a structured interview regarding their pregnancy history. Accuracy of maternal recall varied greatly in relation to the type of pregnancy event, and recall was inaccurate for many specific events. For the control sample only, maternal recall of the total number of complications corresponded closely to chart information. Contrary to the study hypothesis, mothers of offspring with psychosis report fewer complications than indicated in their obstetric records, with no evidence of positive recall bias. These results suggest that previous reports of a positive association between obstetric complications and schizophrenia are not likely to have resulted from biased maternal recall.  (+info)

(6/130) A prospective cohort study of genetic and perinatal influences in the etiology of schizophrenia.

In this study, we examined whether fetal hypoxia and other obstetric complications (OCs) are related to risk for adult schizophrenia; whether such effects are specific to cases with an early age at onset; and whether the obstetric influences depend on, covary with, or are independent of familial risk. Subjects were 72 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder; 63 of their siblings not diagnosed with schizophrenia; and 7,941 nonpsychiatric controls, whose gestations and births were monitored prospectively with standard research protocols as part of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project. Adult psychiatric morbidity was ascertained via a longitudinal treatment data base indexing regional public health service utilization, and diagnoses were made by review of all pertinent medical records according to DSM-IV criteria. We found that the odds of schizophrenia increased linearly with increasing number of hypoxia-associated OCs and that this effect was specific to cases with an early age at onset/first treatment contact. There were no relationships between schizophrenia and birth weight or other (prenatal/nonhypoxic) OCs. Siblings of patients with schizophrenia were no more likely to have suffered hypoxia-associated OCs than were nonpsychiatric cohort controls. Because the majority of individuals exposed to fetal hypoxia did not develop schizophrenia, such factors likely are incapable of causing schizophrenia on their own. Together, these findings suggest that hypoxia acts additively or interactively with genetic factors in influencing liability to schizophrenia. We propose a model in which the neurotoxic effects of fetal hypoxia may lead to an earlier onset of psychosis because of premature pruning of cortical synapses.  (+info)

(7/130) Childhood neuromotor dysfunction in schizophrenia patients and their unaffected siblings: a prospective cohort study.

Neuromotor dysfunction is a consistent finding in high-risk and archival studies of schizophrenia, but the sources of this dysfunction and its role in the developmental course of the disorder remain poorly understood. This study examined childhood motor predictors of adult psychiatric outcome in a birth cohort sample (72 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, 63 unaffected siblings, and 7,941 nonpsychiatric controls), evaluated prospectively with neurologic examinations at 8 months, 4 years, and 7 years of age. Deviance on motor coordination measures at 7 years was associated with both adult schizophrenia and unaffected sibling status, suggesting that a cofamilial (and perhaps genetic) factor underlies motor coordination deficits in schizophrenia. Unusual movements at ages 4 and 7 predicted adult schizophrenia but not unaffected sibling status, indicating that these deficits may be specific to those who will develop the clinical phenotype. None of the motor precursors were confined to patients with an early age at first treatment contact. Fetal hypoxia predicted unusual movements at 4 but not 7 years among the preschizophrenia subjects, suggesting neurodevelopmental dependence of its functional effects. Neither prenatal complications nor birth weight were associated with motor dysfunction in preschizophrenia subjects or their unaffected siblings at any age. Finally, preschizophrenia children did not show the expected developmental decline in unusual movements, perhaps reflecting aberrant functional maturation of cortical-subcortical pathways.  (+info)

(8/130) Comparison of maternal and infant outcomes between vacuum extraction and forceps deliveries.

The authors conducted a population-based historical cohort study in the Canadian province of Quebec to assess the maternal and infant outcomes associated with vacuum extraction and forceps deliveries. The study database contains information on 305,391 mother-infant dyads (linked by a common institutional code and hospital chart number) for singleton live vaginal births with a nonbreech presentation at the gestational age of 37 or more completed weeks and a birth weight between 2,500 and 4,000 g during fiscal years 1991/1992 to 1995/1996. Of the births, 31,015 were delivered by vacuum extraction, and 18,727 were delivered by forceps. Compared with delivery by forceps, the adjusted risk ratios for third-/fourth-degree perineal laceration, intracranial hemorrhage, subdural or cerebral hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cephalhematoma, and neonatal in-hospital death were 0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.45, 0.50), 1.28 (95% confidence interval: 0.73, 2.25), 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.49, 1.93), 0.99 (95% confidence interval: 0.16, 5.97), 5.44 (confidence interval: 1.26, 23.43), 2.02 (95% confidence interval: 1.89, 2.16), and 0.93 (95% confidence interval: 0.32, 2.70), respectively. The authors conclude that vacuum extraction causes less maternal trauma but may increase the risk of cephalhematoma and certain types of intracranial hemorrhage (e.g., subarachnoid hemorrhage).  (+info)