High shikimate production from quinate with two enzymatic systems of acetic acid bacteria.
3-Dehydroshikimate was formed with a yield of 57-77% from quinate via 3-dehydroquinate by two successive enzyme reactions, quinoprotein quinate dehydrogenase (QDH) and 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase, in the cytoplasmic membranes of acetic acid bacteria. 3-Dehydroshikimate was then reduced to shikimate (SKA) with NADP-dependent SKA dehydrogenase (SKDH) from the same organism. When SKDH was coupled with NADP-dependent D-glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) in the presence of excess D-glucose as an NADPH re-generating system, SKDH continued to produce SKA until 3-dehydroshikimate added initially in the reaction mixture was completely converted to SKA. Based on the data presented, a strategy for high SKA production was proposed. (+info)
Association of warfarin dose with genes involved in its action and metabolism.
We report an extensive study of variability in genes encoding proteins that are believed to be involved in the action and biotransformation of warfarin. Warfarin is a commonly prescribed anticoagulant that is difficult to use because of the wide interindividual variation in dose requirements, the narrow therapeutic range and the risk of serious bleeding. We genotyped 201 patients for polymorphisms in 29 genes in the warfarin interactive pathways and tested them for association with dose requirement. In our study, polymorphisms in or flanking the genes VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP2C18, CYP2C19, PROC, APOE, EPHX1, CALU, GGCX and ORM1-ORM2 and haplotypes of VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, PROC, F7, GGCX, PROZ, F9, NR1I2 and ORM1-ORM2 were associated with dose (P < 0.05). VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP2C18 and CYP2C19 were significant after experiment-wise correction for multiple testing (P < 0.000175), however, the association of CYP2C18 and CYP2C19 was fully explained by linkage disequilibrium with CYP2C9*2 and/or *3. PROC and APOE were both significantly associated with dose after correction within each gene. A multiple regression model with VKORC1, CYP2C9, PROC and the non-genetic predictors age, bodyweight, drug interactions and indication for treatment jointly accounted for 62% of variance in warfarin dose. Weaker associations observed for other genes could explain up to approximately 10% additional dose variance, but require testing and validation in an independent and larger data set. Translation of this knowledge into clinical guidelines for warfarin prescription will be likely to have a major impact on the safety and efficacy of warfarin. (+info)
Pathway-specific differences between tumor cell lines and normal and tumor tissue cells.
BACKGROUND: Cell lines are used in experimental investigation of cancer but their capacity to represent tumor cells has yet to be quantified. The aim of the study was to identify significant alterations in pathway usage in cell lines in comparison with normal and tumor tissue. METHODS: This study utilized a pathway-specific enrichment analysis of publicly accessible microarray data and quantified the gene expression differences between cell lines, tumor, and normal tissue cells for six different tissue types. KEGG pathways that are significantly different between cell lines and tumors, cell lines and normal tissues and tumor and normal tissue were identified through enrichment tests on gene lists obtained using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM). RESULTS: Cellular pathways that were significantly upregulated in cell lines compared to tumor cells and normal cells of the same tissue type included ATP synthesis, cell communication, cell cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, purine, pyrimidine and pyruvate metabolism, and proteasome. Results on metabolic pathways suggested an increase in the velocity nucleotide metabolism and RNA production. Pathways that were downregulated in cell lines compared to tumor and normal tissue included cell communication, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), and ECM-receptor interaction. Only a fraction of the significantly altered genes in tumor-to-normal comparison had similar expressions in cancer cell lines and tumor cells. These genes were tissue-specific and were distributed sparsely among multiple pathways. CONCLUSION: Significantly altered genes in tumors compared to normal tissue were largely tissue specific. Among these genes downregulation was a major trend. In contrast, cell lines contained large sets of significantly upregulated genes that were common to multiple tissue types. Pathway upregulation in cell lines was most pronounced over metabolic pathways including cell nucleotide metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation. Signaling pathways involved in adhesion and communication of cultured cancer cells were downregulated. The three way pathways comparison presented in this study brings light into the differences in the use of cellular pathways by tumor cells and cancer cell lines. (+info)
Generation of new landomycins with altered saccharide patterns through over-expression of the glycosyltransferase gene lanGT3 in the biosynthetic gene cluster of landomycin A in Streptomyces cyanogenus S-136.
Two novel landomycin compounds, landomycins I and J, were generated with a new mutant strain of Streptomyces cyanogenus in which the glycosyltransferase that is encoded by lanGT3 was over-expressed. This mutant also produced the known landomycins A, B, and D. All these compounds consist of the same polyketide-derived aglycon but differ in their sugar moieties, which are chains of different lengths. The major new metabolite, landomycin J, was found to consist of landomycinone with a tetrasaccharide chain attached. Combined with previous results of the production of landomycin E (which contains three sugars) by the LanGT3- mutant strain (obtained by targeted gene deletion of lanGT3), it was verified that LanGT3 is a D-olivosyltransferase responsible for the transfer of the fourth sugar required for landomycin A biosynthesis. The experiments also showed that gene over-expression is a powerful method for unbalancing biosynthetic pathways in order to generate new metabolites. The cytotoxicity of the new landomycins--compared to known ones--was assessed by using three different tumor cell lines, and their structure-activity relationship (SAR) with respect to the length of the deoxysugar side chain was deduced from the results. (+info)
Nonsynonymous polymorphisms in genes in the one-carbon metabolism pathway and associations with colorectal cancer.
The Ala(222)Val single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the gene for 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a critical enzyme in one-carbon metabolism, has been associated with colorectal cancer risk. Many enzymes are involved in one-carbon metabolism, and SNPs in the corresponding genes may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. We examined 24 nonsynonymous SNPs in 13 genes involved in the one-carbon metabolism pathway in relation to the risk of colorectal cancer in a case-control study nested in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study cohorts. Among 376 men and women with colorectal cancer and 849 controls, a reduced risk of colorectal cancer was observed for Val/Val versus Ala carriers of MTHFR Ala(222)Val [odds ratio (OR), 0.66; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.43-1.00]. An increased risk was suggested for the variant carrier genotypes versus homozygous wild-type for betaine hydroxymethyltransferase Arg(239)Gln (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.07-1.83) and two linked SNPs in methionine synthase reductase, Ser(284)Thr (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.05-3.27) and Arg(415)Cys (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.15-3.56). The other SNPs were not associated with colorectal cancer risk. Also, none of the SNPs were associated with risk in subgroups of dietary methyl status or were jointly associated with colorectal cancer risk in combination with another SNP, except possibly SNPs in methionine synthase and transcobalamin II. However, these analyses of gene-diet interactions were limited in statistical power. Our results corroborate previous findings for MTHFR Ala(222)Val and suggest that other genes involved in one-carbon metabolism, particularly those that affect DNA methylation, may be associated with colorectal cancer risk. (+info)
The ISC [corrected] proteins Isa1 and Isa2 are required for the function but not for the de novo synthesis of the Fe/S clusters of biotin synthase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to use some biotin precursors for biotin biosynthesis. Insertion of a sulfur atom into desthiobiotin, the final step in the biosynthetic pathway, is catalyzed by biotin synthase (Bio2). This mitochondrial protein contains two iron-sulfur (Fe/S) clusters that catalyze the reaction and are thought to act as a sulfur donor. To identify new components of biotin metabolism, we performed a genetic screen and found that Isa2, a mitochondrial protein involved in the formation of Fe/S proteins, is necessary for the conversion of desthiobiotin to biotin. Depletion of Isa2 or the related Isa1, however, did not prevent the de novo synthesis of any of the two Fe/S centers of Bio2. In contrast, Fe/S cluster assembly on Bio2 strongly depended on the Isu1 and Isu2 proteins. Both isa mutants contained low levels of Bio2. This phenotype was also found in other mutants impaired in mitochondrial Fe/S protein assembly and in wild-type cells grown under iron limitation. Low Bio2 levels, however, did not cause the inability of isa mutants to utilize desthiobiotin, since this defect was not cured by overexpression of BIO2. Thus, the Isa proteins are crucial for the in vivo function of biotin synthase but not for the de novo synthesis of its Fe/S clusters. Our data demonstrate that the Isa proteins are essential for the catalytic activity of Bio2 in vivo. (+info)
Regulation of yeast oscillatory dynamics.
When yeast cells are grown continuously at high cell density, a respiratory oscillation percolates throughout the population. Many essential cellular functions have been shown to be separated temporally during each cycle; however, the regulatory mechanisms involved in oscillatory dynamics remain to be elucidated. Through GC-MS analysis we found that the majority of metabolites show oscillatory dynamics, with 70% of the identified metabolite concentrations peaking in conjunction with NAD(P)H. Through statistical analyses of microarray data, we identified that biosynthetic events have a defined order, and this program is initiated when respiration rates are increasing. We then combined metabolic, transcriptional data and statistical analyses of transcription factor activity, identified the top oscillatory parameters, and filtered a large-scale yeast interaction network according to these parameters. The analyses and controlled experimental perturbation provided evidence that a transcriptional complex formed part of the timing circuit for biosynthetic, reductive, and cell cycle programs in the cell. This circuitry does not act in isolation because both have strong translational, proteomic, and metabolic regulatory mechanisms. Our data lead us to conclude that the regulation of the respiratory oscillation revolves around coupled subgraphs containing large numbers of proteins and metabolites, with a potential to oscillate, and no definable hierarchy, i.e., heterarchical control. (+info)
Redirection of sphingolipid metabolism toward de novo synthesis of ethanolamine in Leishmania.
In most eukaryotes, sphingolipids (SLs) are critical membrane components and signaling molecules. However, mutants of the trypanosomatid protozoan Leishmania lacking serine palmitoyltransferase (spt2-) and SLs grow well, although they are defective in stationary phase differentiation and virulence. Similar phenotypes were observed in sphingolipid (SL) mutant lacking the degradatory enzyme sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase (spl-). This epistatic interaction suggested that a metabolite downstream of SLs was responsible. Here we show that unlike other organisms, the Leishmania SL pathway has evolved to be the major route for ethanolamine (EtN) synthesis, as EtN supplementation completely reversed the viability and differentiation defects of both mutants. Thus Leishmania has undergone two major metabolic shifts: first in de-emphasizing the metabolic roles of SLs themselves in growth, signaling, and maintenance of membrane microdomains, which may arise from the unique combination of abundant parasite lipids; Second, freed of typical SL functional constraints and a lack of alternative routes to produce EtN, Leishmania redirected SL metabolism toward bulk EtN synthesis. Our results thus reveal a striking example of remodeling of the SL metabolic pathway in Leishmania. (+info)