Long-lived antitumor CD8+ lymphocytes for adoptive therapy generated using an artificial antigen-presenting cell. (65/499)

PURPOSE: Antitumor lymphocytes can be generated ex vivo unencumbered by immunoregulation found in vivo. Adoptive transfer of these cells is a promising therapeutic modality that could establish long-term antitumor immunity. However, the widespread use of adoptive therapy has been hampered by the difficulty of consistently generating potent antitumor lymphocytes in a timely manner for every patient. To overcome this, we sought to establish a clinical grade culture system that can reproducibly generate antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We created an off-the-shelf, standardized, and renewable artificial antigen-presenting cell (aAPC) line that coexpresses HLA class I, CD54, CD58, CD80, and the dendritic cell maturation marker CD83. We tested the ability of aAPC to generate tumor antigen-specific CTL under optimal culture conditions. The number, phenotype, effector function, and in vitro longevity of generated CTL were determined. RESULTS: Stimulation of CD8(+) T cells with peptide-pulsed aAPC generated large numbers of functional CTL that recognized a variety of tumor antigens. These CTLs, which possess a phenotype consistent with in vivo persistence, survived ex vivo for prolonged periods of time. Clinical grade aAPC(33), produced under current Good Manufacturing Practices guidelines, generated sufficient numbers of CTL within a short period of time. These CTL specifically lysed a variety of melanoma tumor lines naturally expressing a target melanoma antigen. Furthermore, antitumor CTL were easily generated in all melanoma patients examined. CONCLUSIONS: With clinical grade aAPC(33) in hand, we are now poised for clinical translation of ex vivo generated antitumor CTL for adoptive cell transfer.  (+info)

Programmed anuclear cell death delimits platelet life span. (66/499)

Platelets are anuclear cytoplasmic fragments essential for blood clotting and wound healing. Despite much speculation, the factors determining their life span in the circulation are unknown. We show here that an intrinsic program for apoptosis controls platelet survival and dictates their life span. Pro-survival Bcl-x(L) constrains the pro-apoptotic activity of Bak to maintain platelet survival, but as Bcl-x(L) degrades, aged platelets are primed for cell death. Genetic ablation or pharmacological inactivation of Bcl-x(L) reduces platelet half-life and causes thrombocytopenia in a dose-dependent manner. Deletion of Bak corrects these defects, and platelets from Bak-deficient mice live longer than normal. Thus, platelets are, by default, genetically programmed to die by apoptosis. The antagonistic balance between Bcl-x(L) and Bak constitutes a molecular clock that determines platelet life span: this represents an important paradigm for cellular homeostasis, and has profound implications for the diagnosis and treatment of disorders that affect platelet number and function.  (+info)

Structure-based design and synthesis of N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine-containing peptidomimetics as selective inhibitors of neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Displacement of the heme structural water. (67/499)

The neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), the enzyme responsible for the production of nitric oxide in the central nervous system, represents an attractive target for the treatment of various neurodegenerative disorders. X-ray crystal structures of complexes of nNOS with two nNOS-selective inhibitors, (4S)-N-{4-amino-5-[(2-aminoethylamino]pentyl}-N'-nitroguanidine (1) and 4-N-(Nomega-nitro-l-argininyl)-trans-4-amino-l-proline amide (2), led to the discovery of a conserved structural water molecule that was hydrogen bonded between the two heme propionates and the inhibitors (Figure 2). On the basis of this observation, we hypothesized that by attaching a hydrogen bond donor group to the amide nitrogen of 2 or to the secondary amine nitrogen of 1, the inhibitor molecules could displace the structural water molecule and obtain a direct interaction with the heme cofactor. To test this hypothesis, peptidomimetic analogues 3-5, which have either an N-hydroxyl (3 and 5) or N-amino (4) donor group, were designed and synthesized. X-ray crystal structures of nNOS with inhibitors 3 and 5 bound verified that the N-hydroxyl group had, indeed, displaced the structural water molecule and provided a direct interaction with the heme propionate moiety (Figures 5 and 6). Surprisingly, in vitro activity assay results indicated that the addition of a hydroxyl group (3) only increased the potency slightly against the neuronal isoform over the parent compound (1). Rationalizations for the small increase in potency are consistent with other changes in the crystal structures.  (+info)

A dinuclear Ni(mu-H)Ru complex derived from H2. (68/499)

Models of the active site in [NiFe]hydrogenase enzymes have proven challenging to prepare. We isolated a paramagnetic dinuclear nickel-ruthenium complex with a bridging hydrido ligand from the heterolytic cleavage of H2 by a dinuclear NiRu aqua complex in water under ambient conditions (20 degrees C and 1 atmosphere pressure). The structure of the hexacoordinate Ni(mu-H)Ru complex was unequivocally determined by neutron diffraction analysis, and it comes closest to an effective analog for the core structure of the proposed active form of the enzyme.  (+info)

Actin-filament stochastic dynamics mediated by ADF/cofilin. (69/499)

BACKGROUND: The rapid dynamics of actin filaments is a fundamental process that powers a large number of cellular functions. However, the basic mechanisms that control and coordinate such dynamics remain a central question in cell biology. To reach beyond simply defining the inventory of molecules that control actin dynamics and to understand how these proteins act synergistically to modulate filament turnover, we combined evanescent-wave microscopy with a biomimetic system and followed the behavior of single actin filaments in the presence of a physiologically relevant mixture of accessory proteins. This approach allows for the real-time visualization of actin polymerization and age-dependent filament severing. RESULTS: In the presence of actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin and profilin, actin filaments with a processive formin attached at their barbed ends were observed to oscillate between stochastic growth and shrinkage phases. Fragmentation of continuously growing actin filaments by ADF/cofilin is the key mechanism modulating the prominent and frequent shortening events. The net effect of continuous actin polymerization, driven by a processive formin that uses profilin-actin, and of ADF/cofilin-mediating severing that trims the aged ends of the growing filaments is an up to 155-fold increase in the rate of actin-filament turnover in vitro in comparison to that of actin alone. Lateral contact between actin filaments dampens the dynamics and favors actin-cable formation. A kinetic simulation accurately validates these observations. CONCLUSIONS: Our proposed mechanism for the control of actin dynamics is dominated by ADF/cofilin-mediated filament severing that induces a stochastic behavior upon individual actin filaments. When combined with a selection process that stabilizes filaments in bundles, this mechanism could account for the emergence and extension of actin-based structures in cells.  (+info)

Engineering complex tissues. (70/499)

This article summarizes the views expressed at the third session of the workshop "Tissue Engineering--The Next Generation," which was devoted to the engineering of complex tissue structures. Antonios Mikos described the engineering of complex oral and craniofacial tissues as a "guided interplay" between biomaterial scaffolds, growth factors, and local cell populations toward the restoration of the original architecture and function of complex tissues. Susan Herring, reviewing osteogenesis and vasculogenesis, explained that the vascular arrangement precedes and dictates the architecture of the new bone, and proposed that engineering of osseous tissues might benefit from preconstruction of an appropriate vasculature. Jennifer Elisseeff explored the formation of complex tissue structures based on the example of stratified cartilage engineered using stem cells and hydrogels. Helen Lu discussed engineering of tissue interfaces, a problem critical for biological fixation of tendons and ligaments, and the development of a new generation of fixation devices. Rita Kandel discussed the challenges related to the re-creation of the cartilage-bone interface, in the context of tissue engineered joint repair. Frederick Schoen emphasized, in the context of heart valve engineering, the need for including the requirements derived from "adult biology" of tissue remodeling and establishing reliable early predictors of success or failure of tissue engineered implants. Mehmet Toner presented a review of biopreservation techniques and stressed that a new breakthrough in this field may be necessary to meet all the needs of tissue engineering. David Mooney described systems providing temporal and spatial regulation of growth factor availability, which may find utility in virtually all tissue engineering and regeneration applications, including directed in vitro and in vivo vascularization of tissues. Anthony Atala offered a clinician's perspective for functional tissue regeneration, and discussed new biomaterials that can be used to develop new regenerative technologies.  (+info)

Biomimetic approach to cardiac tissue engineering. (71/499)

Here, we review an approach to tissue engineering of functional myocardium that is biomimetic in nature, as it involves the use of culture systems designed to recapitulate some aspects of the actual in vivo environment. To mimic the capillary network, subpopulations of neonatal rat heart cells were cultured on a highly porous elastomer scaffold with a parallel array of channels perfused with culture medium. To mimic oxygen supply by haemoglobin, the culture medium was supplemented with a perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsion. Constructs cultivated in the presence of PFC contained higher amounts of DNA and cardiac markers and had significantly better contractile properties than control constructs cultured without PFC. To induce synchronous contractions of cultured constructs, electrical signals mimicking those in native heart were applied. Over only 8 days of cultivation, electrical stimulation induced cell alignment and coupling, markedly increased the amplitude of synchronous construct contractions and resulted in a remarkable level of ultrastructural organization. The biomimetic approach is discussed in the overall context of cardiac tissue engineering, and the possibility to engineer functional human cardiac grafts based on human stem cells.  (+info)

Preparation of diazabicyclo[4.3.0]nonene-based peptidomimetics. (72/499)

Several functionalized diazabicyclo[4.3.0]nonenes and other heterocycles have been prepared as potential peptidomimetic scaffolds. A novel and efficient method has been developed for the preparation of N-substituted gamma-lactams 13. Preparation of amidine-containing 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]nonenes 43 and 44 has been achieved through Hg-mediated cyclization of the precursor N-aminopropyl-gamma-thiolactams and subsequent functional group manipulation. Bicycle 43 represents a novel scaffold for potential peptide turn mimetics, whereas 44 could potentially be employed as an alpha-helix template attached to the C-terminus of peptides. These compounds are novel additions to the current range of small-molecule constrained peptidomimetics.  (+info)