Biomimetic oxidation of 2-methylimidazole derivative with a chemical model system for cytochrome P-450.
A chemical model system for cytochrome P-450, consisting of tetraphenylporphyrin manganese chloride (TPPMnCl) and iodosylbenzene, efficiently oxidized 2-methylimidazole to 2-methylimidazolone. This system was next applied to 4-(2-methyl-1-imidazolyl)-2,2-diphenylbutyramide, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist under clinical trial, affording the previously unisolated imidazole ring 5-mono-oxidized derivative that is considered to be the precursor of the main metabolites. This system, which is superior to the copper-ascorbate system, should be applicable to in vitro studies of various drugs containing the 2-methylimidazole moiety. (+info)
Biomimetic reduction of nimesulide with NaBH4 catalyzed by metalloporphyrins.
The biomimetic reduction of anti-inflammatory drug, nimesulide (1) with sodium borohydride catalyzed by 5,10,15,20-tetraarylporphyrinatoiron(III) chlorides [TAPFe(III)Cl] has been studied in organic solvents under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. (+info)
A cellular model for Friedreich Ataxia reveals small-molecule glutathione peroxidase mimetics as novel treatment strategy.
Friedreich Ataxia (FRDA), the most prevalent of the inherited ataxias, is a multi-systemic disease with loss of sensory neurons and life-threatening hypertrophic cardiomyopathy as its most severe manifestations. Reduced levels of the mitochondrial protein frataxin lead to cell-damaging oxidative stress and consequently FRDA is considered as a model for more common neurodegenerative disorders in which reactive radicals and oxidative stress are involved. We have developed a cellular assay system that discriminates between fibroblasts from FRDA patients and unaffected donors on the basis of their sensitivity to pharmacological inhibition of de novo synthesis of glutathione. With this assay we observed that supplementation with selenium effectively improved the viability of FRDA fibroblasts, indicating that basal selenium concentrations are not sufficient to allow an adequate increase in the activity of certain detoxification enzymes (such as GPX). Furthermore, we characterized potential drug candidates and found that idebenone, a mitochondrially localized antioxidant that ameliorates cardiomyopathy in FRDA patients, as well as other lipophilic antioxidants protected FRDA cells from cell death. Our results also demonstrate for the first time that small-molecule GPX mimetics have potential as a novel treatment strategy for Friedreich Ataxia and presumably also for other neurodegenerative diseases with mitochondrial impairment. (+info)
Use of a biomimetic chromatographic stationary phase for study of the interactions occurring between inorganic anions and phosphatidylcholine membranes.
A liquid chromatographic method for the study of ion-membrane interactions is reported. A phosphatidylcholine biomimetic stationary phase was established by loading dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) onto a reversed-phase octadecylsilica packed column. This column was then used to study the interaction of some inorganic anions with the stationary phase by UV and conductivity detection. Ten inorganic anions were selected as model ions and were analyzed with the proposed chromatographic system. Anion-DMPC interactions of differing magnitudes were observed for all of the model anions. Perchlorate-DMPC interactions were strongest, followed by thiocyanate-DMPC, iodide-DMPC, chlorate-DMPC, nitrate-DMPC, bromide-DMPC, chloride-DMPC, fluoride-DMPC, and then sulfate-DMPC. Cations in the eluent, especially H(+) ions and divalent cations such as Ca(2+), showed strong effects on anion-DMPC interactions. The chromatographic data suggest that DMPC interacts with both the anions and the cations. Anion-DMPC interactions were dependent on the surface potential of the stationary phase: at low surface potentials anion-DMPC interactions were predominantly solvation dependent in nature whereas at more positive surface potentials anion-DMPC interactions were predominantly electrostatic in nature. Cation-DMPC interactions served to raise the surface potential, causing the anion-DMPC interactions to vary from solvation dependent to electrostatic. The chromatographic data were used to provide quantitative estimates of the enthalpies of the anion-DMPC interactions. (+info)
Biomimetic lipid/polymer colorimetric membranes: molecular and cooperative properties.
Characterization of membranes and of biological processes occurring within membranes is essential for understanding fundamental cellular behavior. Here we present a detailed biophysical study of a recently developed colorimetric biomimetic membrane assembly constructed from physiological lipid molecules and conjugated polydiacetylene. Various analytical techniques have been applied to characterize the organization of the lipid components in the chromatic vesicles and their contributions to the observed blue-to-red color transitions. Experiments reveal that both the polymerized units as well as the lipids exhibit microscopic phases and form domains whose properties and bilayer organization are interdependent. These domains are interspersed within mixed lipid/polymer vesicles that have a size distribution different from those of aggregates of the individual molecular constituents. The finding that fluidity changes induced within the lipid domains are correlated with the chromatic transitions demonstrates that the colorimetric platform can be used to evaluate the effects of individual molecular components, such as negatively charged lipids and cholesterol, upon membrane fluidity and thermal stability. (+info)
Nanotubules formed by highly hydrophobic amphiphilic alpha-helical peptides and natural phospholipids.
We previously reported that the 18-mer amphiphilic alpha-helical peptide, Hel 13-5, consisting of 13 hydrophobic residues and five hydrophilic amino acid residues, can induce neutral liposomes (egg yolk phosphatidylcholine) to adopt long nanotubular structures and that the interaction of specific peptides with specific phospholipid mixtures induces the formation of membrane structures resembling cellular organelles such as the Golgi apparatus. In the present study we focused our attention on the effects of peptide sequence and chain length on the nanotubule formation occurring in mixture systems of Hel 13-5 and various neutral and acidic lipid species by means of turbidity measurements, dynamic light scattering measurements, and electron microscopy. We designed and synthesized two sets of Hel 13-5 related peptides: 1) Five peptides to examine the role of hydrophobic or hydrophilic residues in amphiphilic alpha-helical structures, and 2) Six peptides to examine the role of peptide length, having even number residues from 12 to 24. Conformational, solution, and morphological studies showed that the amphiphilic alpha-helical structure and the peptide chain length (especially 18 amino acid residues) are critical determinants of very long tubular structures. A mixture of alpha-helix and beta-structures determines the tubular shapes and assemblies. However, we found that the charged Lys residues comprising the hydrophilic regions of amphiphilic structures can be replaced by Arg or Glu residues without a loss of tubular structures. This suggests that the mechanism of microtubule formation does not involve the charge interaction. The immersion of the hydrophobic part of the amphiphilic peptides into liposomes initially forms elliptic-like structures due to the fusion of small liposomes, which is followed by a transformation into tubular structures of various sizes and shapes. (+info)
Molecular dynamics simulations of a pulmonary surfactant protein B peptide in a lipid monolayer.
Pulmonary surfactant is a complex mixture of lipids and proteins that lines the air/liquid interface of the alveolar hypophase and confers mechanical stability to the alveoli during the breathing process. The desire to formulate synthetic mixtures for low-cost prophylactic and therapeutic applications has motivated the study of the specific roles and interactions of the different components. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations were carried out on a model system composed of a monolayer of palmitic acid (PA) and a surfactant protein B peptide, SP-B(1-25). A detailed structural characterization as a function of the lipid monolayer specific area revealed that the peptide remains inserted in the monolayer up to values of specific area corresponding to an untilted condensed phase of the the pure palmitic acid monolayer. The system remains stable by altering the conformational order of both the anionic lipid monolayer and the peptide secondary structure. Two elements appear to be key for the constitution of this phase: an electrostatic interaction between the cationic peptide residues with the anionic headgroups, and an exclusion of the aromatic residues on the hydrophobic end of the peptide from the hydrophilic and aqueous regions. (+info)
Simulation of MscL gating in a bilayer under stress.
The initial stages of the gating of the mechanoselective channel of large conductance from Mycobacterium tuberculosis have been studied in atomic detail using molecular dynamics simulation techniques. A truncated form of the protein complex embedded in a palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine lipid bilayer and surrounded by explicit water was simulated under different pressure conditions to mimic the effects of tension and compression within the membrane on the protein. As a direct result of lateral tension being applied to the membrane, an increase in the tilt of a subset of the transmembrane helices was observed. This in turn led to the enlargement of the pore and the disruption of the hydrophobic gate consisting of residues Ile-14 and Val-21. The simulations suggest that opening occurs in a sequential staged process. Such a mechanism could explain the partial opening or staged conductance observed in patch-clamp experiments using related large conductance mechanosensitive channel complexes. (+info)