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(1/216) Overexpression of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase under the control of mouse metallothionein I promoter in transgenic mice: evidence for a striking post-transcriptional regulation of transgene expression by a polyamine analogue.

We recently generated a transgenic mouse line overexpressing spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) gene under its own promoter. The tissue polyamine pools of these animals were profoundly affected and the mice were hairless from early age. We have now generated another transgenic-mouse line overexpressing the SSAT gene under the control of a heavy-metal-inducible mouse metallothionein I (MT) promoter. Even in the absence of heavy metals, changes in the tissue polyamine pools indicated that a marked activation of polyamine catabolism had occurred in the transgenic animals. As with the SSAT transgenic mice generated previously, the mice of the new line (MT-SSAT) suffered permanent hair loss, but this occurred considerably later than in the previous SSAT transgenic animals. Liver was the most affected tissue in the MT-SSAT transgenic animals, revealed by putrescine overaccumulation, significant decrease in spermidine concentration and >90% reduction in the spermine pool. Even though hepatic SSAT mRNA accumulated to massive levels in non-induced transgenic animals, SSAT activity was only moderately elevated. Administration of ZnSO4 further elevated the level of hepatic SSAT message and induced enzyme activity, but not more than 2- to 3-fold. Treatment of the transgenic animals with the polyamine analogue N1,N11-diethylnorspermine (DENSPM) resulted in an immense induction, more than 40000-fold, of enzyme activity in the liver of transgenic animals, and minor changes in the SSAT mRNA level. Liver spermidine and spermine pools were virtually depleted within 1-2 days in response to the treatment with the analogue. The treatment also resulted in a marked mortality (up to 60%) among the transgenic animals which showed ultrastructural changes in the liver, most notably mitochondrial swelling, one of the earliest signs of cell injury. These results indicated that, even without its own promoter, SSAT is powerfully induced by the polyamine analogue through a mechanism that appears to involve a direct translational and/or heterogenous nuclear RNA processing control. It is likewise significant that overexpression of SSAT renders the animals extremely sensitive to polyamine analogues.  (+info)

(2/216) Novel gating mechanism of polyamine block in the strong inward rectifier K channel Kir2.1.

Inward rectifying K channels are essential for maintaining resting membrane potential and regulating excitability in many cell types. Previous studies have attributed the rectification properties of strong inward rectifiers such as Kir2.1 to voltage-dependent binding of intracellular polyamines or Mg to the pore (direct open channel block), thereby preventing outward passage of K ions. We have studied interactions between polyamines and the polyamine toxins philanthotoxin and argiotoxin on inward rectification in Kir2.1. We present evidence that high affinity polyamine block is not consistent with direct open channel block, but instead involves polyamines binding to another region of the channel (intrinsic gate) to form a blocking complex that occludes the pore. This interaction defines a novel mechanism of ion channel closure.  (+info)

(3/216) Polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors alter protein-protein interactions involving estrogen receptor in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

We investigated the effects of polyamine biosynthesis inhibition on the estrogenic signaling pathway of MCF-7 breast cancer cells using a protein-protein interaction system. Estrogen receptor (ER) linked to glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was used to examine the effects of two polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors, difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and CGP 48664. ER was specifically associated with a 45 kDa protein in control cells. In cells treated with estradiol, nine proteins were associated with ER. Cells treated with polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors in the absence of estradiol retained the binding of their ER with a 45 kDa protein and the ER also showed low-affinity interactions with a number of cellular proteins; however, these associations were decreased by the presence of estradiol and the inhibitors. When samples from the estradiol+DFMO treatment group were incubated with spermidine prior to GST-ER pull down assay, an increased association of several proteins with ER was detected. The intensity of the ER-associated 45 kDa protein increased by 10-fold in the presence of 1000 microM spermidine. These results indicate a specific role for spermidine in ER association of proteins. Western blot analysis of samples eluted from GST-ER showed the presence of chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor, an orphan nuclear receptor, and the endogenous full-length ER. These results show that multiple proteins associate with ER and that the binding of some of these proteins is highly sensitive to intracellular polyamine concentrations. Overall, our results indicate the importance of the polyamine pathway in the gene regulatory function of estradiol in breast cancer cells.  (+info)

(4/216) Influence of polyamines on DNA binding of heat shock and activator protein 1 transcription factors induced by heat shock.

Polyamine depletion, obtained in FAO cells with specific inhibitors of biosynthetic enzymes, prevents or decreases the accumulation of hsp 70 mRNA following heat shock [Desiderio et al., Hepatology 24 (1996) 150-156]. The present study shows that under conditions of spermidine depletion caused by alpha-difluoromethylornithine, the DNA binding capacity of the transcription factor HSF induced by heat shock undergoes a severe and prompt deactivation. Replenishment of the spermidine pool before heat shock re-establishes the DNA binding activity of HSF and the inducibility of hsp 70 mRNA. Similar to HSF, but with a different time-course, the DNA binding of the transcription factor AP-1 activated by heat shock is also impaired in spermidine-depleted cells and reversed by exogenous spermidine. STAT3 provides an example of a transcription factor slightly activated by heat shock but insensitive to polyamine decrease.  (+info)

(5/216) Inhibition of polyamine synthesis arrests trichomonad growth and induces destruction of hydrogenosomes.

Trichomonad parasites such as Tritrichomonas foetus produce large amounts of putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane), which is transported out of the cell via an antiport mechanism which results in the uptake of a molecule of spermine. The importance of putrescine to the survival of the parasite and its role in the biology of T. foetus was investigated by use of the putrescine analogue 1, 4-diamino-2-butanone (DAB). Growth of T. foetus in vitro was significantly inhibited by 20 mM DAB, which was reversed by the addition of exogenous 40 mM putrescine. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of 20 mM DAB-treated T. foetus revealed that putrescine, spermidine, and spermine levels were reduced by 89, 52, and 43%, respectively, compared to those in control cells. The DAB treatment induced several ultrastructural alterations, which were primarily observed in the redox organelles termed hydrogenosomes. These organelles were progressively degraded, giving rise to large vesicles that displayed material immunoreactive with an antibody to beta-succinyl-coenzyme A synthetase, a hydrogenosomal enzyme. A protective role for polyamines as stabilizing agents in the trichomonad hydrogenosomal membrane is proposed.  (+info)

(6/216) Antizyme2 is a negative regulator of ornithine decarboxylase and polyamine transport.

The antizyme family consists of closely homologous proteins believed to regulate cellular polyamine pools. Antizyme1, the first described, negatively regulates ornithine decarboxylase, the initial enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway for polyamines. Antizyme1 targets ornithine decarboxylase for degradation and inhibits polyamine transport into cells, thereby diminishing polyamine pools. A polyamine-stimulated ribosomal frameshift is required for decoding antizyme1 mRNA. Recently, additional novel conserved members of the antizyme family have been described. We report here the properties of one of these, antizyme2. Antizyme2, like antizyme1, binds to ornithine decarboxylase and inhibits polyamine transport. Using a baculovirus expression system in cultured Sf21 insect cells, both antizymes were found to accelerate ornithine decarboxylase degradation. Expression of either antizyme1 or 2 in Sf21 cells also diminished their uptake of the polyamine spermidine. Both forms of antizyme can therefore function as negative regulators of polyamine production and transport. However, in contrast to antizyme1, antizyme2 has negligible ability to stimulate degradation of ornithine decarboxylase in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate.  (+info)

(7/216) The non-enzymatic hydrolysis of oligoribonucleotides VI. The role of biogenic polyamines.

Single-stranded oligoribonucleotides containing UA and CA phosphodiester bonds can be hydrolyzed specifically under non-enzymatic conditions in the presence of spermidine, a biogenic amine found in a wide variety of organisms. In the present study, the rate of oligonucleotide and tRNA(i)(Met)hydrolysis was measured in the presence of spermidine and other biogenic amines. It was found that spermine [H(3)N(+)(CH(2))(3)(+)NH(2)(CH(2))(4)(+)NH(2)(CH(2))(3)(+)NH(3)] and putrescine [H(3)N(+)(CH(2))(4)(+)NH(3)] can replace spermidine [H(3)N(+)-(CH(2))(4)(+)NH(2)(CH(2))(3)(+)NH(3)] to induce the hydrolysis. For all three polyamines, a bell-shaped cleavage rate versus concentration relationship was observed. The maximum rate of hydrolysis was achieved at 0.1, 1.0 and 10 mM spermine, spermidine and putrescine, respectively. Moreover, we found that the hydrolysis requires at least two linked amino groups since two aminoalcohols, 2-aminoethanol and 3-aminopropanol, were not able to induce the cleavage of the phospho-diester bond. The optimal cleavage rate of the oligo-ribonucleotides was observed when amino groups were separated by tri- or tetramethylene linkers. The methylation of the amino groups reduced the ability of diamines to induce oligoribonucleotide hydrolysis. Non-enzymatic cleavage of tRNA(i)(Met)from Lupinus luteus and tRNA(i)(Met)from Escherichia coli demonstrate that both RNAs hydrolyze as expected from principles derived from oligoribonucleotide models.  (+info)

(8/216) Polyamine regulation of plasma membrane phospholipid flip-flop during apoptosis.

During apoptosis, phosphatidylserine (PS) is moved from the plasma membrane inner leaflet to the outer leaflet where it triggers recognition and phagocytosis of the apoptotic cell. Although the mechanisms of PS appearance during apoptosis are not well understood, it is thought that declining activity of the aminophospholipid translocase and calcium-mediated, nonspecific flip-flop of phospholipids play a role. As previous studies in the erythrocyte ghost have shown that polyamines can alter flip-flop of phospholipids, we asked whether alterations in cellular polyamines in intact cells undergoing apoptosis would affect PS appearance, either by altering aminophospholipid translocase activity or phospholipid flip-flop. Cells of the human leukemic cell line, HL-60, were incubated with or without the ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor, difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), and induced to undergo apoptosis by ultraviolet irradiation. Whereas DFMO treatment resulted in profound depletion of putrescine and spermidine (but not spermine), it had no effect on caspase activity, DNA fragmentation, or plasma membrane vesiculation, typical characteristics of apoptosis. Notably, DFMO treatment prior to ultraviolet irradiation did not alter the decline in PS inward movement by the aminophospholipid translocase as measured by the uptake of 6-[(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)aminocaproyl] (NBD)-labeled PS detected in the flow cytometer. Conversely, the appearance of endogenous PS in the plasma membrane outer leaflet detected with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled annexin V and enhanced phospholipid flip-flop detected by the uptake of 1-palmitoyl-1-[6-[(7-nitro-2-1, 3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)aminocaproyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (NBD-PC) seen during apoptosis were significantly inhibited by prior DFMO treatment. Importantly, replenishment of spermidine, by treatment with exogenous putrescine to bypass the metabolic blockade by DFMO, restored both enhanced phospholipid flip-flop and appearance of PS during apoptosis. Such restoration was seen even in the presence of cycloheximide but was not seen when polyamines were added externally just prior to assay. Taken together, these data show that intracellular polyamines can modulate PS appearance resulting from nonspecific flip-flop of phospholipids across the plasma membrane during apoptosis.  (+info)