Effect of glucoprivation on serotonin neurotoxicity induced by substituted amphetamines.
(65/446)The present studies were conducted to further explore the potential role of metabolic compromise in substituted amphetamine-induced serotonin (5-HT) neurotoxicity. To this end, we examined the glucoprivic effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) on the 5-HT neurotoxic effects of fenfluramine (FEN) and methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Rats were treated with either FEN or MDMA, alone and in combination, with doses of 2-DG known to produce glucoprivic effects at either 22 +/- 1 or 28 +/- 1 degrees C. At 22 +/- 1 degrees C, FEN produced hypothermia, MDMA induced hyperthermia, and both drugs produced significant long-term reductions in regional brain 5-HT neuronal markers. 2-DG did not enhance 5-HT neurotoxicity induced by either FEN or MDMA; indeed, in some instances, it afforded partial neuroprotection. Although 2-DG afforded partial protection from both FEN and MDMA-induced 5-HT neurotoxic changes, it also caused significant hypothermia, raising the possibility that protection was due to a lowered temperature. Increasing the ambient temperature to 28 +/- 1 degrees C largely eliminated drug-induced hypothermia and eliminated the neuroprotective effects of 2-DG. Thus, even without the confounding effect of temperature, 2-DG still did not potentiate FEN or MDMA-induced 5-HT neurotoxicity. These findings suggest that the role of metabolic compromise in amphetamine-induced 5-HT neurotoxicity merits further study. (+info)
Effects of chronic cocaine on monoamine levels in discrete brain structures of lactating rat dams.
(66/446)Chronic gestational cocaine administration has been correlated with high levels of postpartum maternal aggression towards intruders and altered levels of oxytocin in the amygdala. Cocaine may alter both oxytocin and maternal aggression either directly or indirectly through changes in monoamine levels in relevant brain regions. In this study, pregnant female rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups; three cocaine dose groups (7.5, 15 or 30 mg/kg), or a saline-treated group (0.9% normal saline) and given subcutaneous injections twice daily (total volume 2 ml/kg) throughout gestation. Behavioral responses to an inanimate object placed in the homecage were assessed on Postpartum Day (PPD) 6. Immediately following testing, animals were sacrificed and four brain regions implicated in maternal/aggressive behavior (medial preoptic area [MPOA], ventral tegmental area [VTA], hippocampus, and amygdala) were removed for monoamine level analyses using high-performance liquid chromatography. Dams given 30 mg/kg cocaine throughout gestation had significantly higher levels of dopamine (DA) and nonsignificantly elevated serotonin (5-HT) levels relative to saline-treated controls. These dams also exhibited higher frequencies of defensive behavior toward an inanimate object compared to saline-treated controls. Potential mechanisms mediating cocaine-induced increases in responding are proposed. (+info)
Pet-1 ETS gene plays a critical role in 5-HT neuron development and is required for normal anxiety-like and aggressive behavior.
(67/446)The central serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter system is an important modulator of diverse physiological processes and behaviors; however, the transcriptional mechanisms controlling its development are largely unknown. The Pet-1 ETS factor is a precise marker of developing and adult 5-HT neurons and is expressed shortly before 5-HT appears in the hindbrain. Here we show that in mice lacking Pet-1, the majority of 5-HT neurons fail to differentiate. Remaining ones show deficient expression of genes required for 5-HT synthesis, uptake, and storage. Significantly, defective development of the 5-HT system is followed by heightened anxiety-like and aggressive behavior in adults. These findings indicate that Pet-1 is a critical determinant of 5-HT neuron identity and implicate a Pet-1-dependent program in serotonergic modulation of behavior. (+info)
The CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A selectively increases monoaminergic neurotransmission in the medial prefrontal cortex: implications for therapeutic actions.
(68/446)1. In order to explore potential therapeutic implications of cannabinoid antagonists, the effects of the prototypical cannabinoid antagonist SR141716A on monoamine efflux from the medial prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens of the rat were investigated by in vivo microdialysis. 2. SR141716A moderately increased serotonin efflux and concentrations of its metabolite 5-HIAA, both in the medial prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens, and increased norepinephrine, dopamine and their metabolites in the medial prefrontal cortex. In contrast, it had no effect on norepinephrine, dopamine and their metabolites in the nucleus accumbens. 3. At the same doses, SR141716A increased acetylcholine efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex, in agreement with previous studies; contrary to the effects in cortex, SR141716A had no effect on acetylcholine efflux in the nucleus accumbens. 4. The efficacy of SR141716A in the psychostimulant-induced hyperlocomotion and the forced swimming paradigms was also explored in mice. SR141716A attenuated phenylcyclidine- and d-amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion, without affecting locomotor activity when administered alone, and decreased immobility in the forced swimming test. 5. These results suggest that the cortical selectivity in the release of catecholamines, dopamine in particular, induced by the cannabinoid antagonist SR141716A, its procholinergic properties, together with its mild stimulatory effects on serotonin and norepinephrine efflux make similar compounds unique candidates for the treatment of psychosis, affective and cognitive disorders. (+info)
The ontogeny of mammalian sleep: a reappraisal of alternative hypotheses.
(69/446)Newborn mammals spend as much as 90% or more of their time in a sleep state characterized by frequent twitches, rapid eye movements (REMs), and irregular respiratory cycles. These motor and respiratory patterns resemble the phasic motor/respiratory components of adult REM sleep, and as a consequence, this sleep state is traditionally viewed as an immature form of REM sleep. An alternative view is that a significant portion of what has been called REM sleep in these species is a form of spontaneous activity typical of the immature nervous system. In this review, we compare and contrast these two opposing views about the ontogenetic origins of REM sleep, and review the evidence most often cited to support the idea that REM sleep is present in newborn altricial mammals. Critical review of this evidence indicates that REM sleep may not be present at birth in these species; rather, it appears that all mammals early in development exhibit spontaneous, dissociated activity that progressively becomes organized into the distinct states of REM and non-rapid eye movement sleep. (+info)
Methylphenidate alters vesicular monoamine transport and prevents methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic deficits.
(70/446)It has been hypothesized that high-dose methamphetamine treatment rapidly redistributes cytoplasmic dopamine within nerve terminals, leading to intraneuronal reactive oxygen species formation and well characterized persistent dopamine deficits. We and others have reported that in addition to this persistent damage, methamphetamine treatment rapidly decreases vesicular dopamine uptake, as assessed in purified vesicles prepared from treated rats; a phenomenon that may contribute to aberrant intraneuronal dopamine redistribution proposedly caused by the stimulant. Interestingly, post-treatment with dopamine transporter inhibitors protect against the persistent dopamine deficits caused by methamphetamine; however, mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have not been elucidated. Also of interest are findings that dopamine transporter inhibitors, including methylphenidate, rapidly increase 1) vesicular dopamine uptake, 2) vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT-2) ligand binding, and 3) VMAT-2 immunoreactivity in a vesicular subcellular fraction prepared from treated rats. Therefore, we hypothesized that methylphenidate post-treatment might protect against the persistent striatal dopamine deficits caused by methamphetamine by rapidly affecting VMAT-2 and vesicular dopamine content. Results reveal that methylphenidate post-treatment both prevents the persistent dopamine deficits and reverses the acute decreases in vesicular dopamine uptake and VMAT-2 ligand binding caused by methamphetamine treatment. In addition, methylphenidate post-treatment reverses the acute decreases in vesicular dopamine content caused by methamphetamine treatment. Taken together, these findings suggest that methylphenidate prevents persistent methamphetamine-induced dopamine deficits by redistributing vesicles and the associated VMAT-2 protein and presumably affecting dopamine sequestration. These findings not only provide insight into the neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine but also mechanisms underlying dopamine neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease. (+info)
Selective antagonism at dopamine D3 receptors enhances monoaminergic and cholinergic neurotransmission in the rat anterior cingulate cortex.
(71/446)Recent neuroanatomical and functional investigations focusing on dopamine (DA) D(3) receptors have suggested a potential role of this receptor in psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia and drug dependence. In line with the key role of the prefrontal cortex in psychiatric disorders, the present study aimed at assessing the effects of the acute systemic administration of the selective DA D(3) receptor antagonist SB-277011-A on the in vivo extracellular levels of monoamines (DA, norepinephrine (NE), and serotonin (5-HT)) and acetylcholine (ACh) in the anterior cingulate subregion of the medial prefrontal cortex. The in vivo neurochemical profile of SB-277011-A (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in the anterior cingulate cortex was compared with both typical and atypical antipsychotics including clozapine (10 mg/kg, s.c.), olanzapine (10 mg/kg, s.c.), sulpiride (10 mg/kg, s.c.), and haloperidol (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.). The acute administration of SB-277011-A, clozapine, and olanzapine produced a significant increase in extracellular levels of DA, NE, and ACh without affecting levels of 5-HT. Sulpiride also significantly increased extracellular DA, but with a delayed onset over SB-277011-A, clozapine, and olanzapine. In contrast, haloperidol failed to alter any of the three monoamines and ACh in the anterior cingulate cortex. These findings add to a growing body of evidence suggesting a differentiation between typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs) in the anterior cingulate cortex and a role of DA D(3) receptors in desired antipsychotic drug profile. Similar to their effects on DA and NE, SB-277011-A, clozapine, and olanzapine increased extracellular levels of ACh, whereas haloperidol and sulpiride did not alter ACh. The results obtained in the present study provide evidence of the important role of DA D(3) receptors in the effect of pharmacotherapeutic agents that are used for the treatment of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and drug dependence. (+info)
(+)-Fenfluramine and its major metabolite, (+)-norfenfluramine, are potent substrates for norepinephrine transporters.
(72/446)(+/-)-Fenfluramine is an amphetamine analog that was once widely prescribed as an appetite suppressant. Although (+/-)-fenfluramine is no longer clinically available, the mechanisms underlying its anorectic properties are still of interest. Upon peripheral administration, stereoisomers of (+/-)-fenfluramine are N-deethylated to form the metabolites, (+)- and (-)-norfenfluramine. It is well accepted that isomers of (+/-)-fenfluramine and (+/-)-norfenfluramine interact with 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-HT) transporters to release 5-HT from neurons. However, the effects of these drugs on other monoamine transporters are not well characterized. In this study, we examined the interaction of stereoisomers of (+/-)-fenfluramine and (+/-)-norfenfluramine with transporters for 5-HT, norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA). Results from in vitro assays confirmed these drugs are potent substrates for 5-HT transporters: (+)-fenfluramine, (-)-fenfluramine, (+)-norfenfluramine, and (-)-norfenfluramine released [3H]5-HT from synaptosomes with EC50 values of 52, 147, 59, and 287 nM, respectively. Importantly, (+)-fenfluramine and (+)-norfenfluramine released [3H]NE with EC50 values of 302 and 73 nM. Results from in vivo microdialysis experiments showed that intravenous injection of (+)-norfenfluramine elevates extracellular levels of 5-HT, NE, and DA in rat frontal cortex. The effects of (+)-norfenfluramine on NE and DA were antagonized by pretreatment with the NE uptake blocker nisoxetine. In summary, administration of fenfluramines can increase synaptic levels of 5-HT, NE, and DA in the cortex, and (+)-norfenfluramine likely contributes to these effects. Release of NE and DA evoked by (+)-norfenfluramine is at least partly mediated via NE transporters. Our results emphasize the potential involvement of noradrenergic mechanisms in the actions of fenfluramines. (+info)