Central nervous system monoamine correlates of social dominance in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). (57/446)

Social dominance is a fundamental component of both human and nonhuman primate sociality. However, its neurobiological correlates remain incompletely understood. We evaluated the association between dominance status and monoamine metabolite concentrations in cisternal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in adult male (n = 25) and female (n = 21) cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) housed in unisexual social groups. Concentrations of the metabolites of dopamine (homovanillic acid [HVA]), norepinephrine (3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol [MHPG]) and serotonin (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid [5-HIAA]) were assayed. Dominant monkeys, both males and females, had significantly higher CSF HVA concentrations than did subordinates (p values <.05). Among males, but not females, dominants also had lower CSF 5-HIAA than subordinates (p <.05). The Dominance-HVA association observed here is consistent with recent speculation that social extraversion, a dominance-related personality trait in humans, may also reflect heightened central nervous system dopaminergic activity.  (+info)

Effects of acute and chronic reboxetine treatment on stress-induced monoamine efflux in the rat frontal cortex. (58/446)

Reboxetine is a selective noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor that displays an antidepressant profile in both animal tests and in clinical trials. The present study examined the ability of reboxetine to alter stress-induced increases in norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine efflux in the frontal cortex in awake behaving rats. Acute systemic administration of reboxetine (0.3-20.0 mg/kg) dose-dependently increased extracellular norepinephrine in the frontal cortex while having no effect on extracellular serotonin. At 20 mg/kg, reboxetine also increased extracellular dopamine. Application of a 20-min tailpinch stress increased extracellular norepinephrine. This effect was greatly potentiated in rats pretreated with reboxetine. Tailpinch did not elicit increases in dopamine in saline treated animals but this stimulus increased dopamine levels following reboxetine pretreatment. Furthermore, chronic administration of reboxetine for 14 days resulted in elevated basal concentrations of extracellular norepinephrine and dopamine and a greater net increase of extracellular norepinephrine and dopamine, but not serotonin, in response to tailpinch compared with vehicle control animals. Taken together, these data support the view that the noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems are modified by reboxetine treatment and may be important factors in the mechanism of action of antidepressant compounds.  (+info)

Behavioural and neuroendocrine effects of environmental background colour and social interaction in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). (59/446)

In salmonid fish, a darker skin colour has been suggested to signal social subordination. Substratum colour is another factor affecting skin pigmentation in fish; in the present experiment, juvenile Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) were acclimated and allowed to interact in pairs for 5 days on a pale or dark background colour. Skin darkness was quantified prior to and following social interaction. Furthermore, agonistic behaviour and skin darkness were quantified, together with plasma levels of cortisol, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), and brain levels of monoamines and monoamine metabolites. The results show that fish interacting on a white background were more aggressive than those interacting on a black background. Social subordination resulted in skin darkening in fish kept on a white background, but not in fish kept on a black background. Furthermore, subordinate fish on a white background showed an elevation of brain norepinephric activity, an effect not seen in subordinate fish on a black background. Subordinate fish on both white and black backgrounds showed a similar activation of the brain serotonergic system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis. These results support the suggestion that skin darkening in subordinates acts as a social signal announcing social submission.  (+info)

Reboxetine: functional inhibition of monoamine transporters and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. (60/446)

The present study determined whether repeated administration of the antidepressant and selective norepinephrine (NE) uptake inhibitor reboxetine resulted in an adaptive modification of the function of the NE transporters (NETs), serotonin (5-HT) transporters, or dopamine (DA) transporters. Because antidepressants may be effective tobacco smoking cessation agents and because antidepressants have recently been shown to interact with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), the interaction of reboxetine with nAChRs was also evaluated. Repeated administration of reboxetine (10 mg/kg i.p., twice daily for 14 days) did not alter the potency or selectivity of reboxetine inhibition of [(3)H]NE, [(3)H]DA, or [(3)H]5-HT uptake into striatal or hippocampal synaptosomes (IC(50) values = 8.5 nM, 89 microM, and 6.9 microM, respectively). In a separate series of experiments, reboxetine did not inhibit (K(i) > 1 microM) [(3)H]methyllycaconitine, [(3)H]cytisine, or [(3)H]epibatidine binding to rat whole brain membranes. However, at concentrations that did not exhibit intrinsic activity, reboxetine potently inhibited (IC(50) value = 7.29 nM) nicotine-evoked [(3)H]NE overflow from superfused hippocampal slices via a noncompetitive mechanism. In the latter experiments, the involvement of NET was eliminated by inclusion of desipramine (10 microM) in the superfusion buffer. Reboxetine also inhibited (IC(50) value = 650 nM) nicotine-evoked (86)Rb(+) efflux at reboxetine concentrations that did not exhibit intrinsic activity in this assay. Thus, in addition to inhibition of NET function, reboxetine inhibits nAChR function, suggesting that it may have potential as a smoking cessation agent.  (+info)

Monoamine-dependent production of reactive oxygen species catalyzed by pseudoperoxidase activity of human hemoglobin. (61/446)

Hemoglobin (Hb) solution-based blood substitutes are being developed as oxygen-carrying agents for the prevention of ischemic tissue damage and low blood volume-shock. However, the cell-free Hb molecule has intrinsic toxicity to the tissue since harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) are readily produced during autoxidation of Hb from the ferrous state to the ferric state, and the cell-free Hb also causes distortion in the oxidant/antioxidant balance in the tissues. There may be further hindering dangers in the use of free Hb as a blood substitute. It has been reported that Hb has peroxidase-like activity oxidizing peroxidase substrates such as aromatic amines. Here we observed the Hb-catalyzed ROS production coupled to oxidation of a neurotransmitter precursor, beta-phenylethylamine (PEA). Addition of PEA to Hb solution resulted in generation of superoxide anion (O2*-). We also observed that PEA increases the Hb-catalyzed monovalent oxidation of ascorbate to ascorbate free radicals (Asc'). The O2*- generation and Asc formation were detected by O2*--specific chemiluminescence of the Cypridina lucigenin analog and electron spin resonance spectroscopy, respectively. PEA-dependent O2*- production and monovalent oxidation of ascorbate in the Hb solution occurred without addition of H2O2, but a trace of H2O2 added to the system greatly increased the production of both O2*- and Asc*. Addition of GSH completely inhibited the PEA-dependent production of O2*- and Asc* in Hb solution. We propose that the O2*- generation and Asc* formation in the Hb solution are due to the pseudoperoxidase activity-dependent oxidation of PEA and resultant ROS may damage tissues rich in monoamines, if the Hb-based blood substitutes were circulated without addition of ROS scavengers such as thiols.  (+info)

Monoamine transporter gene structure and polymorphisms in relation to psychiatric and other complex disorders. (62/446)

The norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin transporters (NET, DAT and SERT, respectively), limit cellular signaling by recapturing released neurotransmitter, and serve as targets for antidepressants and drugs of abuse, emphasizing the integral role these molecules play in neurotransmission and pathology. This has compelled researchers to search for polymorphisms in monoamine (MA) transporter genes. Studies support linkage and association of MA transporter genetic variation in psychiatric and other complex disorders. Understanding the contribution of MA transporter polymorphisms to human behavior, disease susceptibility and response to pharmacotherapies will involve further progress in linkage and association that will be aided by both definition of highly selective phenotypes and utilization of a large number of polymorphic markers. The relationship of polymorphisms to alterations in transport capacity, likely a complex interaction, involving genetic background, disease state, and medication, will elucidate the means by which MA transporter genetic variability contributes to our individuality.  (+info)

Fear behavior and regional brain monoamines distribution after R(+)-8-OHDPAT and R(+)-UH-301 injections into the dorsal raphe nucleus in rats. (63/446)

The effects of 8-OHDPAT and UH-301 injection into the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) on fear behavior of the light-dark transitions test and regional brain monoamines (NA, DA, 5-HT) and their metabolites (MHPG, DOPAC, 5-HIAA) in the hypothalamus (HPT), midbrain central gray matter (MID), amygdala (AMY), hippocampus (HIP) and pons (PO) were examined. An injection of 8-OHDPAT (300 ng) as well UH-301 (300 ng) into the DRN evoked an increase in the number of head dipping from dark to the illuminated compartment of chamber, an increase of time of motionless in the dark compartment and decrease of time of locomotion activity in the illuminated compartment. HPLC analysis showed reduction of 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio in the HPT, HIP and PO, increase of MHPG/NA ratio in the HIP and PO, and increase of DA content in the HPT, AMY and HIP after 8-OHDPAT injection. But injection of UH-301 reduced 5-HT in the MID and increased in the AMY, reduced 5-HIAA content in the HIP and increased in the MID and decreased MHPG/NA ratio in the PO. These results indicate that both 5-HT1A receptor agonists, acting on the 5HT1A autoreceptors caused the anxiolytic effects, reduced fear behavior on the rat connected with infringement of dynamic balance between the serotonergic and catecholaminergics systems.  (+info)

Resistance of alpha -synuclein null mice to the parkinsonian neurotoxin MPTP. (64/446)

Parkinson's disease (PD) is most commonly a sporadic illness, and is characterized by degeneration of substantia nigra dopamine (DA) neurons and abnormal cytoplasmic aggregates of alpha-synuclein. Rarely, PD may be caused by missense mutations in alpha-synuclein. MPTP, a neurotoxin that inhibits mitochondrial complex I, is a prototype for an environmental cause of PD because it produces a pattern of DA neurodegeneration that closely resembles the neuropathology of PD. Here we show that alpha-synuclein null mice display striking resistance to MPTP-induced degeneration of DA neurons and DA release, and this resistance appears to result from an inability of the toxin to inhibit complex I. Contrary to predictions from in vitro data, this resistance is not due to abnormalities of the DA transporter, which appears to function normally in alpha-synuclein null mice. Our results suggest that some genetic and environmental factors that increase susceptibility to PD may interact with a common molecular pathway, and represent the first demonstration that normal alpha-synuclein function may be important to DA neuron viability.  (+info)