Amine modulation of the transient potassium current in identified cells of the lobster stomatogastric ganglion. (49/446)

The pyloric network of the stomatogastric ganglion of the lobster Panulirus interruptus is a model system used to understand how motor networks change their output to produce a variety of behaviors. The transient potassium current (I(A)) shapes the activity of individual pyloric neurons by affecting their rate of postinhibitory rebound and spike frequency. We used two electrode voltage clamp to study the modulatory effects of dopamine (DA), octopamine (OCT), and serotonin (5-HT) on I(A) in the anterior burster (AB), inferior cardiac (IC), and ventricular dilator (VD) neurons of the pyloric circuit. DA significantly reduced I(A) in the AB and IC neurons and shifted their voltages of activation (V(act)) and inactivation (V(inact)) in a depolarized direction. These ionic changes contribute to the depolarization and increased firing rate of the AB and IC neurons produced by DA. Likewise, 5-HT significantly reduced I(A) and shifted V(inact) in the depolarized direction in the IC neuron, consistent with 5-HT's enhancement of IC firing. None of the amines evoked significant changes in I(A) in the VD neuron, suggesting that other currents mediate the amine effects on this neuron.  (+info)

Comparative affinity of duloxetine and venlafaxine for serotonin and norepinephrine transporters in vitro and in vivo, human serotonin receptor subtypes, and other neuronal receptors. (50/446)

The blockade of serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) transporters in vitro and in vivo by the dual 5-HT/NE reuptake inhibitors duloxetine and venlafaxine was compared. Duloxetine inhibited binding to the human NE and 5-HT transporters with K(i) values of 7.5 and 0.8 nM, respectively, and with a K(i) ratio of 9. Venlafaxine inhibited binding to the human NE and 5-HT transporters with K(i) values of 2480 and 82 nM, respectively, and with a K(i) ratio of 30. Duloxetine inhibited ex vivo binding to rat 5-HT transporters and NE transporters with ED(50) values of 0.03 and 0.7 mg/kg, respectively, whereas venlafaxine had ED(50) values of 2 and 54 mg/kg, respectively. The depletion of rat brain 5-HT by p-chloramphetamine and depletion of rat hypothalamic NE by 6-hydroxydopamine was blocked by duloxetine with ED(50) values of 2.3 and 12 mg/kg, respectively. Venlafaxine had ED(50) values of 5.9 and 94 mg/kg for blocking p-chloramphetamine- and 6-hydroxydopamine-induced monoamine depletion, respectively. Thus, duloxetine more potently blocks 5-HT and NE transporters in vitro and in vivo than venlafaxine.  (+info)

Biochemical, behavioral, physiologic, and neurodevelopmental changes in mice deficient in monoamine oxidase A or B. (51/446)

The availability of mutant mice that lack either MAO A or MAO B has created unique profiles in the central and peripheral availability of serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, and phenylethylamine. This paper summarizes some of the current known phenotypic findings in MAO A knock-out mice and contrast these with those of MAO B knock-out mice. Differences are discussed in relation to the biochemical, behavioral, and physiologic changes investigated to date, as well as the role played by redundancy mechanisms, adaptational responses, and alterations in neurodevelopment.  (+info)

A metabotropic glutamate receptor regulates transmitter release from cone presynaptic terminals in carp retinal slices. (52/446)

The role of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in photoreceptor-H1 horizontal cell (HC) synaptic transmission was investigated by analyzing the rate of occurrence and amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in H1 HCs uncoupled by dopamine in carp retinal slices. Red light steps or the application of 100 microM cobalt reduced the sEPSC rate without affecting their peak amplitude, which is consistent with hyperpolarization or the suppression of Ca(2+) entry into cone synaptic terminals reducing vesicular transmitter release. Conversely, postsynaptic blockade of H1 HC AMPA receptors by 500 nM CNQX reduced the amplitude of sEPSCs without affecting their rate. This analysis of sEPSCs represents a novel methodology for distinguishing between presynaptic and postsynaptic sites of action. The selective agonist for group III mGluRs, l-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-APB or L-AP4; 20 microM), reduced the sEPSC rate with a slight reduction in amplitude, which is consistent with a presynaptic action on cone synaptic terminals to reduce transmitter release. During L-APB application, recovery of sEPSC rate occurred with 500 microM (s)-2-methyl-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (MAP4), a selective antagonist of group III mGluR, and with 200 microM 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), a blocker of voltage-dependent potassium channels. Whole-cell recordings from cones in the retinal slice showed no effect of L-APB on voltage-activated Ca(2+) conductance. These results suggest that the activation of group III mGluRs suppresses transmitter release from cone presynaptic terminals via a 4-AP-sensitive pathway. Negative feedback, operating via mGluR autoreceptors, may limit excessive glutamate release from cone synaptic terminals.  (+info)

Reversal of stress-induced memory changes by moclobemide: the role of neurotransmitters. (53/446)

Studies on animals have shown that chronic stress is able to evoke behavioral changes such as locomotor activity deficit, decreased sleep, reduced food and water consumption and impaired memory. Chronic stress produces changes in concentrations of neurotransmitters, mainly in the hippocampus. The hippocampus is a vulnerable brain structure that is involved in learning and memory functions. In this study, we investigated the effects of chronic stress procedure and moclobemide in rats, and the influence of chronic stress on the levels of monoamines: noradrenaline (NE), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in the rat hippocampus [as well as their metabolites: dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)]. It was found out that chronic 21-day stress caused worsening of memory: the well trained rats after stress procedure lost their ability to find food quickly. Because of many errors in finding the way, the time these animals needed was on average 2.4-times longer than that of the control group. Single, as well as prolonged (21 days) treatment with moclobemide (10 mg/kg/day) counteracted the deficit of memory induced by chronic stress. In stressed animals, we observed an increase in DA, decrease in DOPAC, 5-HT and 5-HIAA and decrease in NE levels. Moclobemide modulated the changes in the levels of neurotransmitters in the hippocampus, decreasing their turnover. The results demonstrate that moclobemide improves memory impaired by stress. They suggest also that moclobemide has a modulatory effect on stress-induced neurotransmitter changes which may be of importance for the protective effect of the drug with regard to memory impairment.  (+info)

Afferents to the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus. (54/446)

Sleep is influenced by diverse factors such as circadian time, affective states, ambient temperature, pain, etc., but pathways mediating these influences are unknown. To identify pathways that may influence sleep, we examined afferents to the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO), an area critically implicated in promoting sleep. Injections of the retrograde tracer cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) into the VLPO produced modest numbers of CTB-labeled monoaminergic neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus, raphe nuclei, and ventrolateral medulla, as well as a few neurons in the locus coeruleus. Immunohistochemistry for monoaminergic markers showed dense innervation of the VLPO by histaminergic, noradrenergic, and serotonergic fibers. Along with previous findings, these results suggest that the VLPO and monoaminergic nuclei may be reciprocally connected. Retrograde and anterograde tracing showed moderate or heavy inputs to the VLPO from hypothalamic regions including the median preoptic nucleus, lateral hypothalamic area, and dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH), autonomic regions including the infralimbic cortex and parabrachial nucleus, and limbic regions including the lateral septal nucleus and ventral subiculum. Light to moderate inputs arose from orexin and melanin concentrating hormone neurons, but cholinergic or dopaminergic inputs were extremely sparse. Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) projections to the VLPO were sparse, but the heavy input to the VLPO from the DMH, which receives direct and indirect SCN inputs, could provide an alternate pathway regulating the circadian timing of sleep. These robust pathways suggest candidate mechanisms by which sleep may be influenced by brain systems regulating arousal, autonomic, limbic, and circadian functions.  (+info)

Lower sensitivity to stress and altered monoaminergic neuronal function in mice lacking the NMDA receptor epsilon 4 subunit. (55/446)

NMDA receptors, an ionotropic subtype of glutamate receptors (GluRs), play an important role in excitatory neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity, and brain development. They are composed of the GluRzeta subunit (NR1) combined with any one of four GluRepsilon subunits (GluRepsilon1-GluRepsilon4; NR2A-NR2D). Although the GluRzeta subunit exists in the majority of the CNS throughout all stages of development, the GluRepsilon subunits are expressed in distinct temporal and spatial patterns. In the present study, we investigated neuronal functions in mice lacking the embryonic GluRepsilon4 subunit. GluRepsilon4 mutant mice exhibited reductions of [(3)H]MK-801 [(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo [a,d] cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate] binding and (45)Ca(2+) uptake through the NMDA receptors. The expression of GluRzeta subunit protein, but not GluRepsilon1 and GluRepsilon2 subunit proteins, was reduced in the frontal cortex and striatum of the mutant mice. A postmortem examination in GluRepsilon4 mutant mice revealed that tissue contents of norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, and their metabolites were reduced in the hippocampus and that dopamine, as well as serotonin, metabolism was upregulated in the frontal cortex, striatum, hippocampus, and thalamus. To clarify the phenotypical influences of the alteration in neuronal functions, performances in various behavioral tests were examined. GluRepsilon4 mutant mice showed reduced spontaneous locomotor activity in a novel environment and less sensitivity to stress induced by the elevated plus-maze, light-dark box, and forced swimming tests. These findings suggest that GluRepsilon4 mutant mice have dysfunctional NMDA receptors and altered emotional behavior probably caused by changes in monoaminergic neuronal activities in adulthood.  (+info)

Analysis of monoamines, adenosine and GABA in tissues of the land snail Helix lucorum and lizard Agama stellio stellio during hibernation. (56/446)

The aim of the present study was to determine the levels of monoamines, GABA and adenosine in the brain, heart and haemolymph of the land snail Helix lucorum and in the brain, heart and blood of lizard Agama stellio stellio during long-term hibernation. We measured levels of the monoamines serotonin (5-HT) and its main metabolite 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA), dopamine (DA) and its metabolites dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanilic acid (HVA), norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E). The most abundant amines detected in the brain and heart of active H. lucorum were 5-HT and DA. Of the metabolites examined only 5-HIAA was found in the brain. NE was found at very low levels but only in the brain, while E was not detected in the brain and heart. The levels of 5-HT and 5-HIAA increased in the brain and heart of H. lucorum within the first months of hibernation, showing a significant decrease thereafter. The levels of DA did not change during hibernation. The results indicated that 5-HT might be involved in preparing snails for entry into hibernation. GABA was only found in the brain of H. lucorum, and the levels were low; these levels remained during hibernation. Adenosine was present in brain and heart of H. lucorum, and during hibernation, the level of adenosine decreased significantly in the brain but remained steady in the heart. The monoamines 5-HT, DA and NE were present in the brain of active lizards A. stellio stellio, whereas E was found only at very low levels. Moreover, the metabolites 5-HIAA, DOPAC and HVA were detected in the brain of active lizards. The monoamines 5-HT, DA, NE and E were also detected in the heart and blood of active lizards. During hibernation the levels of these four monoamines were decreased significantly in the brain and heart of A. stellio stellio. In contrast, the levels of E increased in the heart and blood of hibernating lizards. Adenosine was detected in both heart and brain of active lizards, but hibernation caused a marked decrease in its levels at both tissues. GABA was found at higher levels than monoamines and adenosine in the brain of active lizards, and hibernation caused a significant increase in its levels, indicating an important role of GABA in inhibition of neuronal activity in hibernating lizards.  (+info)