Role of 5-HT(2a) and 5-HT(2B/2C) receptors in the behavioral interactions between serotonin and catecholamine reuptake inhibitors. (33/446)

Dysfunction of monoamine neurotransmission seems to contribute to such pathopsychological states as depression, schizophrenia, and drug abuse. The present study examined the effects of the selective serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and antidepressant fluvoxamine on locomotor activity in rats following administration of the catecholamine reuptake inhibitor mazindol. Mazindol (1 mg/kg) did not alter locomotor activity; whereas, fluvoxamine (20 mg/kg) given alone induced a brief period of hypomotility. Hyperactivity was elicited in a dose-related manner when fluvoxamine (5-20 mg/kg) was combined with mazindol (1 mg/kg). The hyperactivity elicited by fluvoxamine (20 mg/kg) plus mazindol (1 mg/kg) was significantly attenuated by the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist M100907 (2 mg/kg) and potentiated by the 5-HT(2B/2C) receptor antagonist SB 206553 (2 mg/kg). Neither antagonist significantly altered basal activity. The hyperactivity evoked by the combination of fluvoxamine and mazindol seems to be mediated in part by 5-HT(2A) receptors; whereas, 5-HT(2B/2C) receptors may serve to limit this effect. Thus, the balance of activation between 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B/2C) receptors seems to contribute to the expression of locomotor hyperactivity evoked via combination of a 5-HT and a catecholamine reuptake inhibitor. A disruption in this balance may contribute to the expression of affective disorders, schizophrenia, and drug abuse.  (+info)

Modulation of haemocyanin oxygen affinity: properties and physiological implications in a changing world. (34/446)

Crustacean haemocyanin oxygen affinity may be modified through changes in concentration of various inorganic and organic allosteric modulators. These may act in both positive and negative directions, increasing or decreasing haemocyanin oxygen affinity, and assist both in oxygen loading at the gills and oxygen release in the tissues. Inorganic ions, except for Mg(2+), do not normally influence cooperativity or the Bohr effect, whereas most of the organic modulators decrease cooperativity without affecting the Bohr coefficient. Several new findings on the influence of sulphide and thiosulphate are reviewed together with evidence for unidentified factors that decrease haemocyanin oxygen affinity. The physiological implications of all these findings are discussed in the context of maintaining a flexible response to a changing environment.  (+info)

An acidic motif retains vesicular monoamine transporter 2 on large dense core vesicles. (35/446)

The release of biogenic amines from large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) depends on localization of the vesicular monoamine transporter VMAT2 to LDCVs. We now find that a cluster of acidic residues including two serines phosphorylated by casein kinase 2 is required for the localization of VMAT2 to LDCVs. Deletion of the acidic cluster promotes the removal of VMAT2 from LDCVs during their maturation. The motif thus acts as a signal for retention on LDCVs. In addition, replacement of the serines by glutamate to mimic phosphorylation promotes the removal of VMAT2 from LDCVs, whereas replacement by alanine to prevent phosphorylation decreases removal. Phosphorylation of the acidic cluster thus appears to reduce the localization of VMAT2 to LDCVs by inactivating a retention mechanism.  (+info)

Molecular mechanisms of cocaine reward: combined dopamine and serotonin transporter knockouts eliminate cocaine place preference. (36/446)

Cocaine blocks uptake by neuronal plasma membrane transporters for dopamine (DAT), serotonin (SERT), and norepinephrine (NET). Cocaine reward/reinforcement has been linked to actions at DAT or to blockade of SERT. However, knockouts of neither DAT, SERT, or NET reduce cocaine reward/reinforcement, leaving substantial uncertainty about cocaine's molecular mechanisms for reward. Conceivably, the molecular bases of cocaine reward might display sufficient redundancy that either DAT or SERT might be able to mediate cocaine reward in the other's absence. To test this hypothesis, we examined double knockout mice with deletions of one or both copies of both the DAT and SERT genes. These mice display viability, weight gain, histologic features, neurochemical parameters, and baseline behavioral features that allow tests of cocaine influences. Mice with even a single wild-type DAT gene copy and no SERT copies retain cocaine reward/reinforcement, as measured by conditioned place-preference testing. However, mice with no DAT and either no or one SERT gene copy display no preference for places where they have previously received cocaine. The serotonin dependence of cocaine reward in DAT knockout mice is thus confirmed by the elimination of cocaine place preference in DAT/SERT double knockout mice. These results provide insights into the brain molecular targets necessary for cocaine reward in knockout mice that develop in their absence and suggest novel strategies for anticocaine medication development.  (+info)

Cocaine or selective block of dopamine transporters influences multisecond oscillations in firing rate in the globus pallidus. (37/446)

Previous studies have shown that direct-acting dopamine agonists modulate the multisecond oscillations which are present in globus pallidus spike trains in vivo in awake rats. To investigate possible modulation by endogenous dopamine and by other monoamines, and by drugs with abuse potential, cocaine or selective monoamine uptake blockers were injected systemically during extracellular recording of single globus pallidus neurons and the results analyzed with spectral and wavelet methods. Both cocaine and the selective dopamine uptake blocker GBR-12909 significantly shortened the period of multisecond oscillations, as well as increasing overall firing rate. Cocaine effects were blocked by dopamine antagonist pretreatment, as well as by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist (MK-801) pretreatment. Desipramine and fluoxetine (blockers of norepinephrine and serotonin uptake, respectively) had no significant effects on multisecond oscillations. The results suggest that dopamine has a primary role among monoamines in modulating multisecond oscillations in globus pallidus activity, and that tonic dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission is necessary for normal slow oscillatory function.  (+info)

Impaired activity of the extraneuronal monoamine transporter system known as uptake-2 in Orct3/Slc22a3-deficient mice. (38/446)

Two uptake systems that control the extracellular concentrations of released monoamine neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline and adrenaline have been described. Uptake-1 is present at presynaptic nerve endings, whereas uptake-2 is extraneuronal and has been identified in myocardium and vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle cells. The gene encoding the uptake-2 transporter has recently been identified in humans (EMT), rats (OCT3), and mice (Orct3/Slc22a3). To generate an in vivo model for uptake-2, we have inactivated the mouse Orct3 gene. Homozygous mutant mice are viable and fertile with no obvious physiological defect and also show no significant imbalance of noradrenaline or dopamine. However, Orct3-null mice show an impaired uptake-2 activity as measured by accumulation of intravenously administered [(3)H]MPP(+) (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium). A 72% reduction in MPP(+) levels was measured in hearts of both male and female Orct3 mutant mice. No significant differences between wild-type and mutant mice were found in any other adult organ or in plasma. When [(3)H]MPP(+) was injected into pregnant females, a threefold-reduced MPP(+) accumulation was observed in homozygous mutant embryos but not in their placentas or amniotic fluid. These data show that Orct3 is the principal component for uptake-2 function in the adult heart and identify the placenta as a novel site of action of uptake-2 that acts at the fetoplacental interface.  (+info)

Behavioral expression of opiate withdrawal is altered after prefrontocortical dopamine depletion in rats: monoaminergic correlates. (39/446)

The objective of this study was to establish the effects of prefrontocortical dopamine depletion on opiate withdrawal and prefrontocortical neurochemical changes elicited by morphine dependence and withdrawal. The dopaminergic content was also measured in the nucleus accumbens during withdrawal, in order to detect reactive changes induced by prefrontocortical lesion. Withdrawal was induced by naloxone in morphine-dependent rats. Monoamine levels were analyzed post-mortem by high performance liquid cromatography. The results showed that chronic morphine dependence did not modify basal levels of monoamines in sham rats, revealing neuroadaptation of prefrontocortical dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin systems to chronic morphine. The neuroadaptive phenomenon remained after prefrontocortical lesion (> 79% dopamine depletion). On the other hand, a strong increase of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin contents in the medial prefrontal cortex of sham rats was detected during opiate withdrawal. However, in lesioned rats, the increase of prefrontocortical dopamine and serotonin content, but not that of noradrenaline, was much lower. In the nucleus accumbens, prefrontocortical lesion reactively enhanced the dopaminergic tone and, although opiate withdrawal reduced dopaminergic activity in both sham and lesioned rats, this reduction was less intense in the latter group. At a behavioral level, some symptoms of physical opiate withdrawal were exacerbated in lesioned rats (writhing, mastication, teeth-chattering, global score) and exploration was reduced. The findings hence indicate that: (i) prefrontocortical monoaminergic changes play a role in the behavioral expression of opiate withdrawal; (ii) the severity of some withdrawal signs are related to the dopaminergic and serotonergic tone of the medial prefrontal cortex rather than to the noradrenergic one, and (iii) an inverse relationship between mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems exists.  (+info)

Effects of Schistocephalus solidus infection on brain monoaminergic activity in female three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus. (40/446)

The three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus is an intermediate host of the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus. Changes in predator avoidance, foraging and shoaling behaviour have been reported in sticklebacks infested with S. solidus, but the mechanisms underlying parasite-induced behavioural changes are not understood. Monoamine neurotransmitters are involved in the control of behaviour and central monoaminergic systems are sensitive to various stressors. Thus, the behavioural effects of S. solidus infestation might be a reflection of changes in brain monoaminergic activity in the stickleback host. The concentrations of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and their metabolites 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanilic acid (HVA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) were measured in the telencephalons, hypothalami and brainstems of parasitized and non-parasitized female sticklebacks held in the laboratory. The ratios of 5-HIAA:5-HT were significantly elevated in both the hypothalami and brainstems of infected sticklebacks. The concentrations of 5-HT and NE were significantly reduced in the telencephalons of infected fish as compared with controls, but there was no elevation of metabolite concentrations. The results are consistent with chronic stress in infected fish, but may also reflect other alterations of neuroendocrine status resulting from parasite infection.  (+info)