S18616, a highly potent spiroimidazoline agonist at alpha(2)-adrenoceptors: II. Influence on monoaminergic transmission, motor function, and anxiety in comparison with dexmedetomidine and clonidine. (25/446)

The alpha(2)-adrenoceptor (AR) agonist, S18616 ((S)-spiro[(1-oxa-2-amino-3-azacyclopent-2-ene)-4,2'-(8'-chloro-1' , 2',3',4'-tetrahydronaphthalene)] accompanying article), suppressed electrical activity of adrenergic neurons in the locus ceruleus, an action reversed by the alpha(2)-AR antagonist, idazoxan, which itself enhanced their firing rate. Electrical activity of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus was similarly suppressed, an action likewise blocked by idazoxan, which did not, itself, influence firing. In freely moving rats, S18616 decreased extracellular levels of norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT), and dopamine (DA) in frontal cortex and hippocampus. The selective alpha(2)- versus alpha(1)-AR antagonists, atipamezole and BRL-44408 (a preferential alpha(2A)-AR antagonist), elevated levels of NE and DA but not 5-HT. In their presence, the influence of S18616 on frontocortical levels of NE, DA, and 5-HT was blocked. In contrast, prazosin, a selective alpha(1)- versus alpha(2)-AR antagonist (which also preferentially blocks alpha(2B/2C)-ARs) dose dependently decreased levels of 5-HT, but not NE and DA, and failed to modify the actions of S18616. Ultrasonic vocalizations elicited by rats in an aversive environment were inhibited by S18616, which also suppressed aggressive and marble-burying behaviors in mice. Furthermore, S18616 (biphasically) enhanced punished responses in the Vogel conflict test and active social interaction tests in rats. At higher doses, S18616 displayed sedative/hypnotic properties. Both anxiolytic and motor actions of S18616 were inhibited by atipamezole and BRL-44408 but not prazosin. Dexmedetomidine mimicked the actions of S18616 at higher doses except for more potent sedative/hypnotic properties. Clonidine also mimicked S18616, but only at markedly higher doses. In conclusion, via activation of alpha(2)-ARs, S18616 potently inhibits corticolimbic adrenergic, serotonergic, and (frontocortical) dopaminergic transmission in parallel with the expression of its anxiolytic and sedative properties.  (+info)

In vivo imaging of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter and the vesicular monoamine transporter. (26/446)

Validation of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and the neuronal vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) as important molecular targets in the cholinergic and dopamine neurons, respectively, has sparked interest in the development of radiotracers for studying these markers in vitro and in vivo. Currently, a number of selective high-affinity radiotracers are available for studying these targets in vivo with positron emission tomography (PET) or single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). PET studies of VMAT2 in neuropathology reveal changes in the density of this marker that can be verified independently. Similarly, in vivo studies with VAChT ligands suggest that the latter are potentially useful in detecting cholinergic lesions in vivo; however, additional development is required to fully realize the potential of these radioligands.  (+info)

Transport mechanisms in acetylcholine and monoamine storage. (27/446)

Sequence-related vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) transport neurotransmitter substrates into secretory vesicles. This review seeks to identify shared and differentiated aspects of the transport mechanisms. VAChT and VMAT exchange two protons per substrate molecule with very similar initial velocity kinetics and pH dependencies. However, vesicular gradients of ACh in vivo are much smaller than the driving force for uptake and vesicular gradients of monoamines, suggesting the existence of a regulatory mechanism in ACh storage not found in monoamine storage. The importance of microscopic rather than macroscopic kinetics in structure-function analysis is described. Transporter regions affecting binding or translocation of substrates, inhibitors, and protons have been found with photoaffinity labeling, chimeras, and single-site mutations. VAChT and VMAT exhibit partial structural and mechanistic homology with lactose permease, which belongs to the same sequence-defined superfamily, despite opposite directions of substrate transport. The vesicular transporters translocate the first proton using homologous aspartates in putative transmembrane domain X (ten), but they translocate the second proton using unknown residues that might not be conserved between them. Comparative analysis of the VAChT and VMAT transport mechanisms will aid understanding of regulation in neurotransmitter storage.  (+info)

Chemical neuroanatomy of the vesicular amine transporters. (28/446)

Acetylcholine, catecholamines, serotonin, and histamine are classical neurotransmitters. These small molecules also play important roles in the endocrine and immune/inflammatory systems. Serotonin secreted from enterochromaffin cells of the gut epithelium regulates gut motility; histamine secreted from basophils and mast cells is a major regulator of vascular permeability and skin inflammatory responses; epinephrine is a classical hormone released from the adrenal medulla. Each of these molecules is released from neural, endocrine, or immune/inflammatory cells only in response to specific physiological stimuli. Regulated secretion is possible because amines are stored in secretory vesicles and released via a stimulus-dependent exocytotic event. Amine storage-at concentrations orders of magnitude higher than in the cytoplasm-is accomplished in turn by specific secretory vesicle transporters that recognize the amines and move them from the cytosol into the vesicle. Immunohistochemical visualization of specific vesicular amine transporters (VATs) in neuronal, endocrine, and inflammatory cells provides important new information about how amine-handling cell phenotypes arise during development and how vesicular transport is regulated during homeostatic response events. Comparison of the chemical neuroanatomy of VATs and amine biosynthetic enzymes has also revealed cell groups that express vesicular transporters but not enzymes for monoamine synthesis, and vice versa: their function and regulation is a new topic of investigation in mammalian neurobiology. The chemical neuroanatomy of the vesicular amine transporters is reviewed here. These and similar data emerging from the study of the localization of the recently characterized vesicular inhibitory and excitatory amino acid transporters will contribute to understanding chemically coded synaptic circuitry in the brain, and amine-handling neuroendocrine and immune/inflammatory cell regulation.  (+info)

Effects of chronic administration of sibutramine on body weight, food intake and motor activity in neonatally monosodium glutamate-treated obese female rats: relationship of antiobesity effect with monoamines. (29/446)

When the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus and arcuate nucleus were destroyed in rats by treatment with monosodium glutamate in the neonatal stage, increase in the Lee index (body weight 1/3/body length) and in retroperitoneal fat as well as decreases in spontaneous motor activity, food consumption and growth hormone secretion function associated with hypothalamic low body length obesity (monosodium glutamate-treated obesity; MSG-OB) were observed as these rats grew. Treatment with sibutramine at 3 and 10 mg/kg p.o. once a day continuously for 14 days improved these parameters, and the degree of improvement was dose related. The plasma lipid values in MSG-OB rats, which were the same as those in normal rats, were decreased by consecutive administration of sibutramine. Levels of hypothalamic monoamines (MAs) such as norepinephrine, 5-HT (serotonin) and dopamine and their metabolites DOPAC, HVA and 5-HIAA were decreased in MSG-OB rats, and further decrease in them, though slight, was observed with consecutive daily administration of sibutramine, probably as a result of the feedback attributable to an increase in MA in synapses caused by inhibition of MA uptake by sibutramine. These results suggest that sibutramine can activate the MA nervous system by MA uptake inhibition in regions of the brain such as the lateral hypothalamic area and the paraventricular nucleus, which control food intake and sympathetic nerve activity, and the nigrostriatal area related to the extrapyramidal motor system, and thereby exhibit anti-obesity effects in the MSG-OB rat.  (+info)

Quantitative trait loci for the monoamine-related traits heart rate and headless behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. (30/446)

Drosophila melanogaster appears to be well suited as a model organism for quantitative pharmacogenetic analysis. A genome-wide deficiency screen for haploinsufficient effects on prepupal heart rate identified nine regions of the genome that significantly reduce (five deficiencies) or increase (four deficiencies) heart rate across a range of genetic backgrounds. Candidate genes include several neurotransmitter receptor loci, particularly monoamine receptors, consistent with results of prior pharmacological manipulations of heart rate, as well as genes associated with paralytic phenotypes. Significant genetic variation is also shown to exist for a suite of four autonomic behaviors that are exhibited spontaneously upon decapitation, namely, grooming, grasping, righting, and quivering. Overall activity levels are increased by application of particular concentrations of the drugs octopamine and nicotine, but due to high environmental variance both within and among replicate vials, the significance of genetic variation among wild-type lines for response to the drugs is difficult to establish. An interval mapping design was also used to map two or three QTL for each behavioral trait in a set of recombinant inbred lines derived from the laboratory stocks Oregon-R and 2b.  (+info)

Characterization of extracellular dopamine clearance in the medial prefrontal cortex: role of monoamine uptake and monoamine oxidase inhibition. (31/446)

In vitro rotating disk electrode (RDE) voltammetry and in vivo microdialysis were used to characterize dopamine clearance in the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). RDE studies indicate that inhibition by cocaine, specific inhibitors of the dopamine transporter (DAT) and norepinephrine transporter (NET), and low Na(+) produced a 50-70% decrease in the velocity of dopamine clearance. Addition of the monoamine (MAO) inhibitors, l-deprenyl, clorgyline, pargyline, or in vivo nialamide produced 30-50% inhibition. Combined effects of uptake inhibitors with l-deprenyl on dopamine clearance were additive (up to 99% inhibition), suggesting that at least two mechanisms may contribute to dopamine clearance. Dopamine measured extracellularly 5 min after exogenous dopamine addition to incubation mixtures revealed that most conditions of DAT/NET inhibition did not produce elevated dopamine levels above controls. Inhibition of MAO produced elevated dopamine levels only after long-term, but not short-term, incubation in vitro. Short-term incubation of l-deprenyl combined with DAT and NET uptake inhibitors increased dopamine above control levels, consistent with more than one mechanism of dopamine clearance. Local infusion of pargyline (100 or 300 microm) into the mPFC or striatum via microdialysis produced more pronounced and immediate increases in mPFC dopamine levels compared with striatum. Furthermore, dopamine elevation in the mPFC was not accompanied by a decrease in the dopamine metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid, as found in the striatum. These findings may have revealed a unique mechanism of mPFC dopamine clearance and therefore contribute to the understanding of multiple behaviors that involve mPFC dopamine transmission, such as schizophrenia, drug abuse, and working memory function.  (+info)

Hyperfunction of dopaminergic and serotonergic neuronal systems in mice lacking the NMDA receptor epsilon1 subunit. (32/446)

NMDA receptors, an ionotropic subtype of glutamate receptors (GluRs) forming high Ca(2+)-permeable cation channels, are composed by assembly of the GluRzeta subunit (NR1) with any one of four GluRepsilon subunits (GluRepsilon1-4; NR2A-D). In the present study, we investigated neuronal functions in mice lacking the GluRepsilon1 subunit. GluRepsilon1 mutant mice exhibited a malfunction of NMDA receptors, as evidenced by alterations of [(3)H]MK-801 binding as well as (45)Ca(2+) uptake through the NMDA receptors. A postmortem brain analysis revealed that both dopamine and serotonin metabolism were increased in the frontal cortex and striatum of GluRepsilon1 mutant mice. The NMDA-stimulated [(3)H]dopamine release from the striatum was increased, whereas [(3)H]GABA release was markedly diminished in GluRepsilon1 mutant mice. When (+)bicuculline, a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, was added to the superfusion buffer, NMDA-stimulated [(3)H]dopamine release was significantly increased in wild-type, but not in the mutant mice. GluRepsilon1 mutant mice exhibited an increased spontaneous locomotor activity in a novel environment and an impairment of latent learning in a water-finding task. Hyperlocomotion in GluRepsilon1 mutant mice was attenuated by treatment with haloperidol and risperidone, both of which are clinically used antipsychotic drugs, at doses that had no effect in wild-type mice. These findings provide evidence that NMDA receptors are involved in the regulation of behavior through the modulation of dopaminergic and serotonergic neuronal systems. In addition, our findings suggest that GluRepsilon1 mutant mice are useful as an animal model of psychosis that is associated with NMDA receptor malfunction and hyperfunction of dopaminergic and serotonergic neuronal systems.  (+info)