Agonistic behaviour and biogenic amines in shore crabs Carcinus maenas.
To investigate the role of certain neurohormones in agonistic behaviour, fights were staged between pairs of size-matched male shore crabs Carcinus maenas, and blood samples were taken immediately after the contests had been resolved. Samples were also taken from these crabs at rest (before and after fighting) and after walking on a treadmill. A control group of crabs also had samples taken on each experimental day. Concentrations of tyramine, dopamine, octopamine, serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine were determined in each blood sample using a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system. Norepinephrine was not detectable in any of the samples, but the standards were recovered. Tyramine values were not significantly different between the control group and the fought group, so tyramine does not appear to be important in agonistic behaviour. A comparison between the control and fought groups shows that fighting had an effect on the concentrations of octopamine, dopamine and 5-HT, but exercise only had an effect on octopamine levels, which showed a reduction from resting values in both winners and losers. Resting and post-fight concentrations of octopamine, dopamine and 5-HT were higher in winners than in losers. 5-HT concentration increased in the blood of fought crabs from resting values, whereas dopamine concentration decreased. In winners, octopamine concentrations decreased from resting values, but in losers octopamine levels increased from resting concentrations. The escalatory behaviour or intensity of fighting performed by winners and losers was related to dopamine levels but not to those of octopamine or 5-HT. Therefore, there appears to be a link between relative concentrations of these three amines (dopamine, octopamine and 5-HT) and fighting ability; the effects are not simply a result of activity. The better competitors have higher concentrations of these three amines at rest and after fighting. (+info)
Postsynaptic 5-hydroxytryptamine(1A) receptor activation increases in vivo dopamine release in rat prefrontal cortex.
5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) plays a role in the regulation of 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine (dopamine) neurons in the brain, but the precise mechanism of regulation by 5-HT(1A) receptors of dopamine release has not been defined. The present study describes the effect of 5- inverted question mark3-[[(2S)-1,4-benzodioxan-2ylmethyl]amino]propoxy inverted question mark-1, 3-benzodioxole HCl (MKC-242), a highly potent and selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, on dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex using microdialysis in the freely moving rat. Subcutaneous injection of MKC-242 (0.3 - 1.0 mg kg(-1)) increased extracellular levels of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex. The effect of MKC-242 in the prefrontal cortex was antagonized by pretreatment with the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(2-pyridinyl)cyclohe xanecarboxamide (WAY100635; 1 mg kg(-1), i.p.). Local application of WAY100635 (10 microM) via a microdialysis probe antagonized the effect of systemic MKC-242 in an increasing dopamine release, and locally infused 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (10 microM) increased dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex. MKC-242 increased cortical dopamine release in the rats pretreated with 5, 7-dihydroxytryptamine (150 microgram, i.c.v.) that caused an almost complete reduction in cortical 5-HT content. The effect of MKC-242 to increase dopamine release was also observed in the hippocampus, but not in the striatum or nucleus accumbens. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, increased dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex, but not in the nucleus accumbens, while buspirone, a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, increased dopamine release in both brain regions. The present results indicate that activation of postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors increases dopamine release in a brain region-specific manner. (+info)
Cocaine and antidepressant-sensitive biogenic amine transporters exist in regulated complexes with protein phosphatase 2A.
Presynaptic transporter proteins regulate the clearance of extracellular biogenic amines after release and are important targets for multiple psychoactive agents, including amphetamines, cocaine, and antidepressant drugs. Recent studies reveal that dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and serotonin (5-HT) transporters (DAT, NET, and SERT, respectively) are rapidly regulated by direct or receptor-mediated activation of cellular kinases, particularly protein kinase C (PKC). With SERTs, PKC activation results in activity-dependent transporter phosphorylation and sequestration. Protein phosphatase 1/2A (PP1/PP2A) inhibitors, such as okadaic acid (OA) and calyculin A, also promote SERT phosphorylation and functional downregulation. How kinase, phosphatase, and transporter activities are linked mechanistically is unclear. In the present study, we found that okadaic acid-sensitive phosphatase activity is enriched in SERT immunoprecipitates from human SERT stably transfected cells. Moreover, blots of these immunoprecipitates reveal the presence of PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac), findings replicated using brain preparations. Whole-cell treatments with okadaic acid or calyculin A diminished SERT/PP2Ac associations. Phorbol esters, which trigger SERT phosphorylation, also diminish SERT/PP2Ac associations, effects that can be blocked by PKC antagonists as well as the SERT substrate 5-HT. Similar transporter/PP2Ac complexes were also observed in coimmunoprecipitation studies with NETs and DATs. Our findings provide evidence for the existence of regulated heteromeric assemblies involving biogenic amine transporters and PP2A and suggest that the dynamic stability of these complexes may govern transporter phosphorylation and sequestration. (+info)
Neurochemical and metabolic aspects of antidepressants: an overview.
Antidepressants, in addition to being effective therapeutic agents for depression, have also proved to be multifaceted drugs useful for treating a number of other psychiatric and neurologic disorders. Despite the widespread use of these drugs, much remains to be understood about their mechanisms of action and other important aspects, such as their metabolism and potential interactions with other drugs. This article reviews research conducted in the authors' laboratories on various aspects of antidepressants, including trace amines and antidepressants, gamma-aminobutyric acid and antidepressants, drug metabolism, development and application of rapid, sensitive assay procedures for antidepressants and their metabolites; and drug development based on analogues of the antidepressants phenelzine and tranylcypromine. The significance of this work to future drug development is also discussed. (+info)
Sodium-potassium-adenosinetriphosphatase-dependent sodium transport in the kidney: hormonal control.
Tubular reabsorption of filtered sodium is quantitatively the main contribution of kidneys to salt and water homeostasis. The transcellular reabsorption of sodium proceeds by a two-step mechanism: Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase-energized basolateral active extrusion of sodium permits passive apical entry through various sodium transport systems. In the past 15 years, most of the renal sodium transport systems (Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, channels, cotransporters, and exchangers) have been characterized at a molecular level. Coupled to the methods developed during the 1965-1985 decades to circumvent kidney heterogeneity and analyze sodium transport at the level of single nephron segments, cloning of the transporters allowed us to move our understanding of hormone regulation of sodium transport from a cellular to a molecular level. The main purpose of this review is to analyze how molecular events at the transporter level account for the physiological changes in tubular handling of sodium promoted by hormones. In recent years, it also became obvious that intracellular signaling pathways interacted with each other, leading to synergisms or antagonisms. A second aim of this review is therefore to analyze the integrated network of signaling pathways underlying hormone action. Given the central role of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in sodium reabsorption, the first part of this review focuses on its structural and functional properties, with a special mention of the specificity of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase expressed in renal tubule. In a second part, the general mechanisms of hormone signaling are briefly introduced before a more detailed discussion of the nephron segment-specific expression of hormone receptors and signaling pathways. The three following parts integrate the molecular and physiological aspects of the hormonal regulation of sodium transport processes in three nephron segments: the proximal tubule, the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop, and the collecting duct. (+info)
A transplantable human carcinoid as model for somatostatin receptor-mediated and amine transporter-mediated radionuclide uptake.
A human midgut carcinoid tumor was successfully transplanted into nude mice and propagated for five consecutive generations (30 months) with well-preserved phenotype. Tumor cells in nude mice expressed identical neuroendocrine markers as the original tumor, including somatostatin receptors (somatostatin receptors 1 to 5) and vesicular monoamine transporters (VMAT1 and VMAT2). Because of the expression of somatostatin receptors and VMAT1 and VMAT2 the grafted tumors could be visualized scintigraphically using the somatostatin analogue 111In-octreotide and the catecholamine analogue 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine. The biokinetics of the somatostatin analogue 111In-octreotide in the tumors was studied and showed a high retention 7 days after administration. Cell cultures were re-established from transplanted tumors. Immunocytochemical and ultrastructural studies confirmed the neuroendocrine differentiation. The human origin of transplanted tumor cells was confirmed by cytogenetic and fluorescence it situ hybridization analyses. Spontaneous secretion of serotonin and its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, from tumor cells was demonstrated. The tumor cells increased their [Ca2+]i in response to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation (isoproterenol) and K+-depolarization. All somatostatin receptor subtypes could be demonstrated in cultured cells. This human transplantable carcinoid tumor, designated GOT1, grafted to nude mice, will give unique possibilities for studies of somatostatin receptor- and VMAT-mediated radionuclide uptake as well as for studies of secretory mechanisms. (+info)
Biogenic amines in Drosophila virilis under stress conditions.
The effect of heat stress (38 degrees C) on the content of DL-beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine (DOPA), dopamine, tyramine, octopamine, and their precursor Tyr was studied in adults of two lines of Drosophila virilis contrasting in their stress response. In individuals of line 101 responding to stress by a hormonal stress reaction, the contents of DOPA, dopamine, octopamine, and Tyr were lower than those of line 147 that did not respond to the stress. However, heat stress caused an increase in the contents of DOPA, dopamine, octopamine, and Tyr in line 101, whereas the equivalent titers in line 147 remain unchanged. (+info)
Cerebrospinal fluid biogenic amine metabolites, plasma-rich platelet serotonin and [3H]imipramine reuptake in the primary fibromyalgia syndrome.
BACKGROUND: Primary fibromyalgia syndrome (PFS) is a chronic disorder commonly seen in rheumatological practice. The pathophysiological disturbances of this syndrome, which was defined by the American College of Rheumatology in 1990, are poorly understood. This study evaluated, in 30 patients, the hypothesis that PFS is a pain modulation disorder induced by deregulation of serotonin metabolism. OBJECTIVES: To compare platelet [(3)H]imipramine binding sites and serotonin (5-HT) levels in plasma-rich platelets (PRP) of PFS patients with those of matched healthy controls and to compare the levels of biogenic amine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of PFS patients with those of matched controls. METHODS: Platelet [(3)H]imipramine binding sites were defined by two criteria, B(max) for their density and K(d) for their affinity. PRP 5-HT and CSF metabolites of 5-HT (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 5-HIAA), norepinephrine (3-methoxy, 4-hydroxy phenylglycol, MHPG) and dopamine (homovanillic acid, HVA) were assayed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with coulometric detection. RESULTS: [(3)H]Imipramine platelet binding was similar (P=0.43 for B(max) and P=0.30 for K(d)) in PFS patients (B(max)=901+/-83 fmol/mg protein, K(d)=0.682+/-0.046) and in matched controls (B(max)=1017+/-119 fmol/mg protein, K(d)=0.606+/-0.056). PRP 5-HT was significantly higher (P=0.0009) in PFS patients (955+/-101 ng/10(9) platelets) than in controls (633+/-50 ng/10(9) platelets). When adjusted for age, the levels of all CSF metabolites were lower in PFS patients. The CSF metabolite of norepinephrine (MHPG) was lower (P:=0.003) in PFS patients (8.33+/-0.33 ng/ml) than in matched controls (9.89+/-0.31 ng/ml) and 5-HIAA was lower (P=0.042) in PFS female patients (22.34+/-1.78 ng/ml) than in matched controls (25.75+/-1.75 ng/ml). For HVA in females, the difference between PFS patients (36.32+/-3.20 ng/ml) and matched controls (38.32+/-2.90 ng/ml) approached statistical significance (P=0.054). CONCLUSION: Changes in metabolites of CSF biogenic amines appear to be partially correlated to age but remained diagnosis-dependent. High levels of PRP 5-HT in PFS patients were associated with low CSF 5-HIAA levels in female patients but were not accompanied by any change in serotonergic uptake as assessed by platelet [(3)H]imipramine binding sites. These findings do not allow us to confirm that serotonin metabolism is deregulated in PFS patients. (+info)