Anatomical risk factors for proximal perigraft endoleak and graft migration following endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms. (57/3384)

INTRODUCTION: proximal perigraft endoleak (PPE) and graft migration are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Objective data establishing correlation between neck anatomy and these complications are lacking. The aim of this study was to analyse the anatomy of the neck in order to find which variables were significantly associated with PPE and graft migration. METHODS: one hundred and eighty-four patients underwent endovascular repair (EVR) of infrarenal AAA using an in-house custom-made stent graft (Gianturco stents plus Dacron). Thirty-one patients had PPE and fifteen had graft migration. Neck diameter was measured at the level of renal arteries and lower limit of the neck. Necks were classified according to shape. Neck angulation was measured from spiral computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reconstructions, or angiograms. Thrombus or atheroma lining and presence of calcifications were recorded. RESULTS: neck angulation was significantly greater in patients who had PPE (50+/-16, p=0. 0005) or graft migration (54+/-20, p=0.003), compared to patients who had none of these two complications (37+/-18). Neck diameter was significantly greater in patients with PPE (p=0.05). Incidence of PPE or graft migration was not significantly higher in the presence of a conical shape, thrombus or atheroma lining and calcifications. CONCLUSION: neck angulation was the risk factor most significantly related to PPE and graft migration.  (+info)

Biomaterial-associated persistence of Staphylococcus epidermidis in pericatheter macrophages. (58/3384)

Biomaterial surfaces may be modified to reduce bacterial adhesion. The susceptibility in mice to Staphylococcus epidermidis infection in tissue surrounding the commonly used catheter materials-silicon elastomer (SE), polyamide (PA), and their surface-modified polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-grafted derivatives, SE-PVP and PA-PVP, respectively-was assessed. Abscesses developed around SE-PVP. Around SE, PA, and PA-PVP catheters, no signs of infection were observed, although mice carrying PA-PVP developed septicemia after 14-21 days. S. epidermidis was cultured from the tissue surrounding PA-PVP segments. Cells around PA-PVP segments containing large numbers of bacteria were identified as macrophages by use of immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. This persistence of intracellular bacteria was also observed around SE-PVP, SE, and PA catheters, although to a lesser extent. The cytokine profiles around the 4 materials were different. Implanted biomaterial induces an inflammatory response favorable to the persistence of S. epidermidis. Intracellular persistence of bacteria inside macrophages may be a pivotal process in the pathogenesis of biomaterial-associated infection.  (+info)

Reduced thrombus formation by hyaluronic acid coating of endovascular devices. (59/3384)

Biocompatible stent coatings may alleviate problems of increased (sub)acute thrombosis after stent implantation. Hyaluronic acid (HA), a ubiquitous, nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan, inhibits platelet adhesion and aggregation and prolongs bleeding when administered systemically. However, the effects of immobilized HA for reducing stent platelet deposition in vivo are unknown. We therefore quantified the antithrombotic effects of coating stainless steel stents and tubes with HA using an established baboon thrombosis model under physiologically relevant blood flow conditions. HA-coated and uncoated (control) stents (3.5 mm in diameter, n=32) and stainless steel tubes (4.0 mm in diameter, n=18) were deployed into exteriorized arteriovenous shunts of conscious, nonanticoagulated baboons. Accumulation of (111)In-radiolabeled platelets was quantified by continuous gamma-camera imaging during a 2-hour blood exposure period. HA coating resulted in a significant reduction in platelet deposition in long (4 cm) tubes (0.24+/-0.15 x 10(9) versus 6.12+/-0.49 x 10(9) platelets; P<0.03), short (2 cm) stainless steel tubes (0.18+/-0.06 x 10(9) versus 3.03+/-0.56 x 10(9) platelets; P<0.008), and stents (0.82+/-0.20 x 10(9) versus 1.83+/-0. 23 x 10(9) platelets; P<0.02) compared with uncoated control devices. Thus, HA coating reduces platelet thrombus formation on stainless steel stents and tubes in primate thrombosis models. These results indicate that immobilized HA may represent an attractive strategy for improving the thromboresistance of endovascular devices.  (+info)

Tissue response to bioactive glass and autogenous bone in the rabbit spine. (60/3384)

Bioactive glass S53P4 and autogenous bone were used as bone graft materials in an experimental rabbit model for spinal fusion. The study focused on differences in bone formation using bioactive glass and autogenous bone as bone graft materials. Bioactive glass, a mixture of bioactive glass and autogenous bone or autogenous bone was implanted for 4 and 12 weeks at the thoracolumbar level. Undecalcified sections were prepared for histological and histomorphometric evaluation. New bone formation was seen in all implanted areas, with the bone growing from the surface of the vertebrae enclosing both glass and autogenous bone in the bone fusion mass. During the observation period, the measured amount of bone remained at the same level in the autograft group, while in the glass and the glass/autograft bone groups it increased. By 12 weeks, no significant difference in bone formation between the three groups was observable. The bone formation in two selected standardized areas at 12 weeks was 21 and 24% in the glass group, 23 and 28% in the glass/autograft bone group and 27 and 26% in the autograft bone group. We consider bioactive glass as a potential bone graft material in experimental spinal fusion.  (+info)

Evaluation of in vivo biocompatibility of different devices for interventional closure of the patent ductus arteriosus in an animal model. (61/3384)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the in vivo biocompatibility of three different devices following interventional closure of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in an animal model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A medical grade stainless steel coil (n = 8), a nickel/titanium coil (n = 10), and a polyvinylalcohol foam plug knitted on a titanium wire frame (n = 11) were used for interventional closure of PDA in a neonatal lamb model. The PDA had been maintained by repetitive angioplasty. Between one and 278 days after implantation the animals were killed and the ductal block removed. In addition to standard histology and scanning electron microscopy, immunohistochemical staining for biocompatibility screening was also undertaken. RESULTS: Electron microscopy revealed the growth of a cellular layer in a cobblestone pattern on the implant surfaces with blood contact, which was completed as early as five weeks after implantation of all devices. Immunohistochemical staining of these superficial cells showed an endothelial cell phenotype. After initial thrombus formation causing occlusion of the PDA after implantation there was ingrowth of fibromuscular cells resembling smooth muscle cells. Transformation of thrombotic material was completed within six weeks in the polyvinylalcohol plug and around the nickel/titanium coil, and within six months after implantation of the stainless steel coil. An implant related foreign body reaction was seen in only one of the stainless steel coil specimens and in two of the nickel/titanium coil specimens. CONCLUSION: After implantation, organisation of thrombotic material with ingrowth of fibromuscular cells was demonstrated in a material dependent time pattern. The time it took for endothelium to cover the implants was independent of the type of implant. Little or no inflammatory reaction of the surrounding tissue was seen nine months after implantation.  (+info)

Structure of bioactive glass and its application to glass ionomer cement. (62/3384)

We prepared a new glass ionomer cement using bioactive CaO-P2O5-SiO2(-MgO) glass and investigated its setting process using FT-IR and MAS NMR analyses. The compressive strengths of the cements depended on the glass composition and a maximum strength of 33.3 +/- 4.7 MPa was obtained using cement with the glass composition of MgO:4.6, CaO:44.9, SiO2:34.2 and P2O5:16.3% in weight. FT-IR analysis showed that the COOH group in the polyacrylic acid decreased and carboxylate ion (COO-Ca2+) increased after the setting reaction. A broad signal appeared around -82 ppm in 29Si MAS-NMR spectra of the glass and a new signal corresponding to hydrated silica gel formation appeared around -102 and -111 ppm after setting. This suggests that Ca2+ was released from the glass powder to form carboxylate salt and that a degree of polymerization in the silicate network increased. The setting mechanism of the cement was found to be essentially the same as in conventional glass ionomer cement.  (+info)

A new method for measurement of blood pressure, heart rate, and activity in the mouse by radiotelemetry. (63/3384)

A simple and reliable means for accurate, chronic measurement of pulsatile blood pressure (BP) from conscious, freely moving laboratory mice was developed and validated. The newly developed device consists of a small (1.9 ml, 3.4 g), fully implantable radiotelemetry transmitter. Initial frequency response tests showed an adequate dynamic response; the average -3-dB point found in five transmitters was 145 +/- 14 (SD) Hz. BP, heart rate, and locomotor activity were recorded from 16 chronically (30-150 days) implanted mice. Mean arterial and pulse pressure, checked at regular intervals, ranged from 90-140 mmHg and from 30-50 mmHg, respectively, throughout the study. Transmitter BP measurements were validated against a Millar 1.4-Fr. transducer-tipped catheter. The mean error of the transmitters for diastolic pressures was +1.1 +/- 6.9 mmHg (n = 7). The error for systolic pressures was, on average, 2.7 +/- 3.9 mmHg larger. This new device accurately monitors BP, heart rate, and locomotor activity in conscious, untethered, freely moving mice living in their home cages for periods of at least 150 days.  (+info)

Creation and use of a composite polyurethane-expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft for hemodialysis access. (64/3384)

The Thoratec (Vectra) polyurethane vascular access graft (TPVA) is among the most recent additions to the list of materials used to construct prosthetic grafts for vascular access during hemodialysis. We give the TPVA very high marks, and recognize the utility of such a graft for use in hemodialysis. However, the strong elasticity of this graft can lead to unexpected complications after suturing. We devised a new surgical method using a TPVA-ePTFE (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene) composite graft, substituting the anastomosis section of the TPVA with a portion of ePTFE graft material, and have been able to overcome most of the TPVA's potential problems. We herein describe the technique.  (+info)