Hemodialysis-related lymphomononuclear release of interleukin-12 in patients with end-stage renal disease. (25/3384)

Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a cytokine produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) that causes interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production and enhancement of cell-mediated cytotoxicity. To clarify the role of hemodialysis biocompatibility on IL-12 production and uremic immunodeficiency, we have studied the IL-12 and IFN-gamma release by PBMC harvested from 12 patients dialyzed with cuprophan membrane (CU), eight patients dialyzed with polymethylmethacrylate membrane (PMMA), and eight nondialyzed uremic patients (UR). Ten healthy subjects constituted the control group (CON). PBMC were cultured for 48 h with and without nonspecific mitogen stimulation. In unstimulated conditions, CU showed an IL-12 PBMC production higher than CON, UR, and PMMA (46.67 +/- 30.13 versus 2.56 +/- 1.38, 6.16 +/- 7.09, and 4.62 +/- 4.76 pg/ml, respectively; P < 0.01). IL-12 production was correlated with C3a concentration measured at the outlet of hemodialyzer after 15 min of dialysis (r = 0.69, P < 0.01). IL-12 release in CU remained unchanged under mitogen stimulation (44.34 +/- 23.86 pg/ml) and was lower than in CON, UR, and PMMA (66.0 +/- 12.41, 68.37 +/- 25.78, and 67.75 +/- 22.61 pg/ml, respectively; P < 0.05). IFN-gamma production was similar, in unstimulated conditions, in all groups. Under stimulation, IFN-gamma release was lower in CU (13.42 +/- 12.04 IU/ml) than in CON, UR, and PMMA (51.84 +/- 30.74, 32.16 +/- 13.86, and 32.16 +/- 13.86 IU/ml, respectively; P < 0.01). These results demonstrate that hemodialysis with CU induces monocyte activation with an enhanced release of IL-12. On the contrary, stimulated PBMC production of both IL-12 and IFN-gamma is lower in these patients than in CON, UR, and PMMA. The altered release of these cytokines could play a role in cell-mediated immunodeficiency of the uremic patients dialyzed with CU.  (+info)

Treatment with sulfasalazine or sulfapyridine, but not 5-aminosalicyclic acid, inhibits basic fibroblast growth factor-induced endothelial cell chemotaxis. (26/3384)

OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by leukocyte recruitment and angiogenesis. We investigated the effects of sulfasalazine (SSZ) and its metabolites, sulfapyridine (SP) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), on components of angiogenesis, namely, endothelial cell (EC) chemotaxis and proliferation, as well as on EC chemokine and soluble adhesion molecule expression. METHODS: SSZ, SP, and 5-ASA were assayed for their effects on basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced human dermal microvascular endothelial cell (HMVEC) chemotaxis and proliferation. EC were plated on Matrigel to assess the effect of SSZ on EC tube formation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were performed to determine changes in HMVEC production of interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), growth-related oncogene alpha (GROalpha), epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide 78 (ENA-78), soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin), and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) upon treatment with SSZ or its metabolites. RESULTS: HMVEC incubated with SSZ or SP exhibited reduced bFGF-induced chemotaxis (59%, [n = 7] and 22%, [n = 3], respectively) (P<0.05). SSZ and SP decreased basal HMVEC proliferation, while 5-ASA increased proliferation (P<0.05; [n = 5]). SSZ decreased bFGF-induced HMVEC proliferation (P<0.05 [n = 5]). SSZ inhibited phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced HMVEC tube formation (P<0.05; [minimum n = 5]). Tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulated HMVEC shedding of sICAM-1 was reduced by incubation with either SSZ (19%) or 5-ASA (23%) (P<0.05; [n = 6]). SP inhibited cytokine-stimulated HMVEC expression of IL-8 and MCP-1 (P<0.05; [n = 4]). Neither SSZ nor its metabolites had any effect on HMVEC production of sE-selectin, GROalpha, or ENA-78. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that SSZ and its metabolite SP may affect the pathogenesis of RA by inhibiting EC chemotaxis, proliferation, tube formation, and expression of sICAM-1, IL-8, and MCP-1.  (+info)

Poor eight-year survival of cemented zirconia-polyethylene total hip replacements. (27/3384)

Between January 1988 and January 1991 we performed 100 consecutive cemented total hip replacements using a zirconia head, a titanium alloy stem and a polyethylene cup. We reviewed 78 of these hips in 61 patients in detail at a mean of 5.8 years (1 to 9). Aseptic loosening was seen in 11 hips (14%). Eight needed revision. In total, 37 cups (47.5%) showed radiolucent lines, all at the cement-bone interface, with 18 (23%) involving all the interface. Of the 78 femoral implants, 17 (21.7%) showed radiolucent lines, and two, which had a complete line of more than 1 mm thick, definite endocortical osteolyses. There was also an abnormally high incidence of osteolysis of more than 2 mm at the calcar. Survivorship analysis showed that only 63% were in situ at eight years. These worrying results led us to abandon the use of zirconia heads, since at the same hospital, using the same femoral stem, cement and polyethylene cup, but with alumina femoral heads, the survival rate was 93% at nine years. We discuss the possible reasons for the poor performance of zirconia ceramic.  (+info)

Characteristics of bone ingrowth and interface mechanics of a new porous tantalum biomaterial. (28/3384)

We have studied the characteristics of bone ingrowth of a new porous tantalum biomaterial in a simple transcortical canine model using cylindrical implants 5 x 10 mm in size. The material was 75% to 80% porous by volume and had a repeating arrangement of slender interconnecting struts which formed a regular array of dodecahedron-shaped pores. We performed histological studies on two types of material, one with a smaller pore size averaging 430 microm at 4, 16 and 52 weeks and the other with a larger pore size averaging 650 microm at 2, 3, 4, 16 and 52 weeks. Mechanical push-out tests at 4 and 16 weeks were used to assess the shear strength of the bone-implant interface on implants of the smaller pore size. The extent of filling of the pores of the tantalum material with new bone increased from 13% at two weeks to between 42% and 53% at four weeks. By 16 and 52 weeks the average extent of bone ingrowth ranged from 63% to 80%. The tissue response to the small and large pore sizes was similar, with regions of contact between bone and implant increasing with time and with evidence of Haversian remodelling within the pores at later periods. Mechanical tests at four weeks indicated a minimum shear fixation strength of 18.5 MPa, substantially higher than has been obtained with other porous materials with less volumetric porosity. This porous tantalum biomaterial has desirable characteristics for bone ingrowth; further studies are warranted to ascertain its potential for clinical reconstructive orthopaedics.  (+info)

Eversion endarterectomy versus open thromboendarterectomy and patch plasty for the treatment of internal carotid artery stenosis. (29/3384)

OBJECTIVE: in 1996 we changed our treatment for stenosis of the internal carotid artery (ICA) from open thromboendarterectomy and PTFE-patch plasty (TEA) to eversion endarterectomy (EEA). DESIGN: retrospective study. METHODS: a total of 475 EEAs of the ICA were performed between 2/96 and 11/96. These results were compared to the results of TEA carried out between 2/94 and 11/94 (n=388). RESULTS: clamping and operation time were significantly shorter for EEA. Neurological complications included transient ischaemic attacks in 1. 0% in the EEA group versus 1.3% after TEA (p=0.72), minor strokes (0. 6% vs. 1.8%, p=0.10) and major strokes in 1.5% versus 1.1% (p=0.59). The rate of restenosis >50% was 2.5% after EEA and 10.2% after TEA. The only detectable difference of statistical significance in complication rates was in the lesions of the hypoglossal nerve (5.3% vs. 2.6%, p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: EEA of the ICA is a safe procedure for carotid reconstruction with the additional advantages of short clamping time, possibility of simultaneous shortening of an elongated ICA, and no requirement for patching.  (+info)

Intraocular pharmacokinetics and safety of a humanized monoclonal antibody in rabbits after intravitreal administration of a solution or a PLGA microsphere formulation. (30/3384)

Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) bioresorbable microspheres are used for controlled-release drug delivery and are particularly promising for ocular indications. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and safety of a recombinant human monoclonal antibody (rhuMAb HER2) in rabbits after bolus intravitreal administration of a solution or a PLGA-microsphere formulation. On Day 0, forty-eight male New Zealand white rabbits (2.3-2.6 kg) were immobilized with intramuscular ketamine/xylazine, and the test materials were injected directly into the vitreous compartment. Group 1 animals received rhuMAb HER2 in 50:50 lactide: glycolide PLGA microspheres; Group 2 animals received rhuMAb HER2 in solution (n = 24/group). The dose for each eye was 25 microg (50 microl). After dosing, animals were sacrificed at 2 min, and on 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, 23, 29, 37, 44, 50, and 56 days (n = 2/timepoint/group). Safety assessment included direct ophthalmoscopy, clinical observations, body weight, and hematology and clinical chemistry panels. At necropsy, vitreous and plasma were collected for pharmacokinetics and analysis for antibodies to rhuMAb HER2, and the vitreal pellet (Group 1) was prepared for histologic evaluation. All animals completed the study per protocol-both treatments were well tolerated, and no suppurative or mixed inflammatory cell reaction was observed in the vitreal samples (Group 1) at any of the time points examined. Antibodies to rhuMAb HER2 were detected in plasma samples by Day 7 in both treatment groups, but infrequently in vitreous samples. There were no safety implications associated with this immune response. The in vitro characterization of the PLGA microspheres provided reasonable projections of the in vivo rhuMAb HER2 release kinetics (Group 1). The total amount of antibody that was released was similar in vitro (25.9%) and in vivo (32.4%). RhuMAb HER2 (Group 2) was cleared slowly from the vitreous compartment, with initial and terminal half-lives of 0.9 and 5.6 days, respectively. The volume of distribution approximated the vitreous volume in a rabbit eye.  (+info)

A comparative evaluation of various invasion assays testing colon carcinoma cell lines. (31/3384)

Various colon carcinoma cell lines were tested in different invasion assays, i.e. invasion into Matrigel, into confluent fibroblast layers and into chicken heart tissue. Furthermore, invasive capacity and metastatic potential were determined in nude mice. The colon carcinoma cells used were the human cell lines Caco-2, SW-480, SW-620 and HT-29, and the murine lines Colon-26 and -38. None of the human colon carcinoma cells migrated through porous membranes coated with Matrigel; of the murine lines, only Colon-26 did. When incubated in a mixture of Matrigel and culture medium non-invading cells formed spheroid cultures, whereas invading cells showed a stellate outgrowth. Only the heterogeneously shaped (epithelioid and stellate) cells of SW-480 and SW-620 and the spindle-shaped cells of Colon-26 invaded clearly confluent skin and colon fibroblasts as well as chicken heart tissue. However, when transplanted into the caecum of nude and syngeneic mice, all the lines tested were invasive with the exception of Caco-2 cells. We conclude that the outcome of in vitro tests measuring the invasive capacity of neoplastic cells is largely dependent on the test system used. Invasive capacity in vitro is strongly correlated with cells having a spindle cell shape, vimentin expression and E-cadherin down regulation. In contrast, HT-29 and Colon-38 cells having an epithelioid phenotype were clearly invasive and metastatic in vivo, but not in vitro.  (+info)

Novel vascular graft grown within recipient's own peritoneal cavity. (32/3384)

A method by which to overcome the clinical symptoms of atherosclerosis is the insertion of a graft to bypass an artery blocked or impeded by plaque. However, there may be insufficient autologous mammary artery for multiple or repeat bypass, saphenous vein may have varicose degenerative alterations that can lead to aneurysm in high-pressure sites, and small-caliber synthetic grafts are prone to thrombus induction and occlusion. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop an artificial blood conduit of any required length and diameter from the cells of the host for autologous transplantation. Silastic tubing, of variable length and diameter, was inserted into the peritoneal cavity of rats or rabbits. By 2 weeks, it had become covered by several layers of myofibroblasts, collagen matrix, and a single layer of mesothelium. The Silastic tubing was removed from the harvested implants, and the tube of living tissue was everted such that it now resembled a blood vessel with an inner lining of nonthrombotic mesothelial cells (the "intima"), with a "media" of smooth muscle-like cells (myofibroblasts), collagen, and elastin, and with an outer collagenous "adventitia." The tube of tissue (10 to 20 mm long) was successfully grafted by end-to-end anastomoses into the severed carotid artery or abdominal aorta of the same animal in which they were grown. The transplant remained patent for at least 4 months and developed structures resembling elastic lamellae. The myofibroblasts gained a higher volume fraction of myofilaments and became responsive to contractile agonists, similar to the vessel into which they had been grafted. It is suggested that these nonthrombogenic tubes of living tissue, grown in the peritoneal cavity of the host, may be developed as autologous coronary artery bypass grafts or as arteriovenous access fistulae for hemodialysis patients.  (+info)