A modular treatment of molecular traffic through the active site of cholinesterase.
We present a model for the molecular traffic of ligands, substrates, and products through the active site of cholinesterases (ChEs). First, we describe a common treatment of the diffusion to a buried active site of cationic and neutral species. We then explain the specificity of ChEs for cationic ligands and substrates by introducing two additional components to this common treatment. The first module is a surface trap for cationic species at the entrance to the active-site gorge that operates through local, short-range electrostatic interactions and is independent of ionic strength. The second module is an ionic-strength-dependent steering mechanism generated by long-range electrostatic interactions arising from the overall distribution of charges in ChEs. Our calculations show that diffusion of charged ligands relative to neutral isosteric analogs is enhanced approximately 10-fold by the surface trap, while electrostatic steering contributes only a 1.5- to 2-fold rate enhancement at physiological salt concentration. We model clearance of cationic products from the active-site gorge as analogous to the escape of a particle from a one-dimensional well in the presence of a linear electrostatic potential. We evaluate the potential inside the gorge and provide evidence that while contributing to the steering of cationic species toward the active site, it does not appreciably retard their clearance. This optimal fine-tuning of global and local electrostatic interactions endows ChEs with maximum catalytic efficiency and specificity for a positively charged substrate, while at the same time not hindering clearance of the positively charged products. (+info)
Quantum catalysis in enzymes: beyond the transition state theory paradigm. A Discussion Meeting held at the Royal Society on 14 and 15 November 2005.
How do enzymes work? What is the physical basis of the phenomenal rate enhancements achieved by enzymes? Do we have a theoretical framework that accounts for observed catalytic rates? These are the foremost questions-with particular emphasis on tunnelling phenomena-debated at this Discussion Meeting by the leading practitioners in the field. (+info)
Genome-wide studies of histone demethylation catalysed by the fission yeast homologues of mammalian LSD1.
In order to gain a more global view of the activity of histone demethylases, we report here genome-wide studies of the fission yeast SWIRM and polyamine oxidase (PAO) domain homologues of mammalian LSD1. Consistent with previous work we find that the two S. pombe proteins, which we name Swm1 and Swm2 (after SWIRM1 and SWIRM2), associate together in a complex. However, we find that this complex specifically demethylates lysine 9 in histone H3 (H3K9) and both up- and down-regulates expression of different groups of genes. Using chromatin-immunoprecipitation, to isolate fragments of chromatin containing either H3K4me2 or H3K9me2, and DNA microarray analysis (ChIP-chip), we have studied genome-wide changes in patterns of histone methylation, and their correlation with gene expression, upon deletion of the swm1(+) gene. Using hyper-geometric probability comparisons we uncover genetic links between lysine-specific demethylases, the histone deacetylase Clr6, and the chromatin remodeller Hrp1. The data presented here demonstrate that in fission yeast the SWIRM/PAO domain proteins Swm1 and Swm2 are associated in complexes that can remove methyl groups from lysine 9 methylated histone H3. In vitro, we show that bacterially expressed Swm1 also possesses lysine 9 demethylase activity. In vivo, loss of Swm1 increases the global levels of both H3K9me2 and H3K4me2. A significant accumulation of H3K4me2 is observed at genes that are up-regulated in a swm1 deletion strain. In addition, H3K9me2 accumulates at some genes known to be direct Swm1/2 targets that are down-regulated in the swm1Delta strain. The in vivo data indicate that Swm1 acts in concert with the HDAC Clr6 and the chromatin remodeller Hrp1 to repress gene expression. In addition, our in vitro analyses suggest that the H3K9 demethylase activity requires an unidentified post-translational modification to allow it to act. Thus, our results highlight complex interactions between histone demethylase, deacetylase and chromatin remodelling activities in the regulation of gene expression. (+info)
Functional effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the coding region of human N-acetyltransferase 1.
Genetic variants of human N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) are associated with cancer and birth defects. N- and O-acetyltransferase catalytic activities, Michaelis-Menten kinetic constants (K(m) and V(max)) and steady-state expression levels of NAT1-specific mRNA and protein were determined for the reference NAT1*4 and variant human NAT1 haplotypes possessing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the open reading frame. Although none of the SNPs caused a significant effect on steady-state levels of NAT1-specific mRNA, C97T(R33stop), C190T(R64W), C559T (R187stop) and A752T(D251V) each reduced NAT1 protein level and/or N- and O-acetyltransferase catalytic activities to levels below detection. G560A(R187Q) substantially reduced NAT1 protein level and catalytic activities and increased substrate K(m). The G445A(V149I), G459A(synonymous) and T640G(S214A) haplotype present in NAT1*11 significantly (P<0.05) increased NAT1 protein level and catalytic activity. Neither T21G(synonymous), T402C(synonymous), A613G(M205V), T777C(synonymous), G781A(E261K) nor A787G(I263V) significantly affected K(m), catalytic activity, mRNA or protein level. These results suggest heterogeneity among slow NAT1 acetylator phenotypes. (+info)
Light-activated deoxyguanosine: photochemical regulation of peroxidase activity.