Fine specificity of the autoimmune response to the Ro/SSA and La/SSB ribonucleoproteins.
The fine specificity of the Ro and La proteins has been studied by several techniques. In general, there is agreement in a qualitative sense that autoantibodies bind multiple epitopes. For some specific antibody binding, different studies agree quantitatively, for instance, the binding of the carboxyl terminus of 60-kd Ro as described by 2 studies using different techniques and the presence of an epitope within the leucine zipper of 52-kd Ro. In addition, there is general agreement about the location of a prominent epitope at the RRM motif region of the La molecule. On the other hand, the many specific epitope regions of the molecules differ among these studies. These discrepancies are likely the result of using different techniques, sera, and peptide constructs as well as a result of inherent advantages and disadvantages in the individual approaches. Several theories concerning the origin of not only the antibodies, but also the diseases themselves, have been generated from studies of the fine specificity of antibody binding. These include a theory of a primordial foreign antigen for anti-Ro autoimmunity, molecular mimicry with regard to La and CCHB, as well as the association of anti-Ro with HLA. These remain unproven, but are of continuing interest. An explanation for the association of anti-60-kd Ro and anti-52-kd Ro in the sera of patients has sprung from evaluating antibody binding. Data demonstrating multiple epitopes are part of a large body of evidence that strongly suggests an antigen-driven immune response. This means that the autoantigens are directly implicated in initiating and sustaining autoimmunity in their associated diseases. A number of studies have investigated the possibility of differences in the immune response to these antigens in SS and SLE sera. While several differences have been reported, none have been reproduced in a second cohort of patients. Furthermore, none of the reported differences may be sufficiently robust for clinical purposes, such as distinguishing between SS with systemic features and mild SLE, although some might be promising. For instance, in at least 3 groups of SLE patients, no binding of residues spanning amino acids 21-41 of 60-kd Ro has been found. Meanwhile, 1 of those studies found that 41% of sera from patients with primary SS bound the 60-kd Ro peptide 21-41. Perhaps future studies will elaborate a clinical role of such a difference among SS and SLE patients. Study of the epitopes of these autoantigens has, in part, led to a new animal model of anti-Ro and anti-La. Non-autoimmune-prone animals are immunized with proteins or peptides that make up the Ro/La RNP. Such animals develop an autoimmune response to the entire particle, not just the immunogen. This response has been hypothesized to arise from autoreactive B cells. In another, older animal model of disease, the MRL-lpr/lpr mouse, B cells have recently been shown to be required for the generation of abnormal, autoreactive T cells. Thus, there are now powerful data indicating that B cells that produce autoantibodies are directly involved in the pathogenesis of disease above and beyond the formation of immune complexes. Given that the autoreactive B cell is potentially critical to the underlying pathogenesis of disease, then studying these cells will be crucial to further understanding the origin of diseases associated with Ro and La autoimmunity. Hopefully, an increased understanding will eventually lead to improved treatment of patients. Progress in the area of treatment will almost surely be incremental, and studies of the fine specificity of autoantibody binding will be a part of the body of basic knowledge contributing to ultimate advancement. In the future, the animal models will need to be examined with regard to immunology and immunochemistry as well as genetics. The development of these autoantibodies has not been studied extensively because upon presentation to medical care, virtually all patients have a full- (+info)
Novel proteoglycan linkage tetrasaccharides of human urinary soluble thrombomodulin, SO4-3GlcAbeta1-3Galbeta1-3(+/-Siaalpha2-6)Galbeta1-4Xyl.
O-linked sugar chains with xylose as a reducing end linked to human urinary soluble thrombomodulin were studied. Sugar chains were liberated by hydrazinolysis followed by N-acetylation and tagged with 2-aminopyridine. Two fractions containing pyridylaminated Xyl as a reducing end were collected. Their structures were determined by partial acid hydrolysis, two-dimensional sugar mapping combined with exoglycosidase digestions, methylation analysis, mass spectrometry, and NMR as SO4-3GlcAbeta1-3Galbeta1-3(+/-Siaalpha2-6)Galbeta1+ ++-4Xyl. These sugar chains could bind to an HNK-1 monoclonal antibody. This is believed to be the first example of a proteoglycan linkage tetrasaccharide with glucuronic acid 3-sulfate and sialic acid. (+info)
The role of homophilic binding in anti-tumor antibody R24 recognition of molecular surfaces. Demonstration of an intermolecular beta-sheet interaction between vh domains.
The murine antibody R24 and mouse-human Fv-IgG1(kappa) chimeric antibody chR24 are specific for the cell-surface tumor antigen disialoganglioside GD3. X-ray diffraction and surface plasmon resonance experiments have been employed to study the mechanism of "homophilic binding," in which molecules of R24 recognize and bind to other molecules of R24 though their heavy chain variable domains. R24 exhibits strong binding to liposomes containing disialoganglioside GD3; however, the kinetics are unusual in that saturation of binding is not observed. The binding of chR24 to GD3-bearing liposomes is significantly weaker, suggesting that cooperative interactions involving antibody constant regions contribute to R24 binding of membrane-bound GD3. The crystal structures of the Fabs from R24 and chR24 reveal the mechanism for homophilic binding and confirm that the homophilic and antigen-binding idiotopes are distinct. The homophilic binding idiotope is formed largely by an anti-parallel beta-sheet dimerization between the H2 complementarity determining region (CDR) loops of two Fabs, while the antigen-binding idiotope is a pocket formed by the three CDR loops on the heavy chain. The formation of homophilic dimers requires the presence of a canonical conformation for the H2 CDR in conjunction with participation of side chains. The relative positions of the homophilic and antigen-binding sites allows for a lattice of GD3-specific antibodies to be constructed, which is stabilized by the presence of the cell membrane. This model provides for the selective recognition by R24 of cells that overexpress GD3 on the cell surface. (+info)
Recognition of polynucleotides by antibodies to poly(I), poly(C).
The binding of anti poly(I). poly (C) Fab fragments to double or triple stranded polynucletides has been studied by fluorescence. Association constants were deduced from competition experiments. The comparison of the association constants leads to the conclusion that several atoms of the base residues do not interact with the amino acid residues of the binding site of Fab fragment while the hydroxyl groups of furanose rings interact. These results suggest that the Fab fragments do not bind to the major groove of the double stranded polynucleotides. An interaction between the C(2)O group of pyrimidine residues and Fab fragments cannot be excluded. Circular dichroism of poly(I). poly(C) or poly(I). poly(br5C)-Fab fragments complexes are very different from the circular dichroism of free polynucleotides which suggests a deformation of the polynucleotides bound to the Fab fragments. (+info)
Analysis of the interaction of monoclonal antibodies with surface IgM on neoplastic B-cells.
In vitro studies identified three Burkitts lymphoma cell lines, Ramos, MUTU-I and Daudi, that were growth inhibited by anti-IgM antibody. However, only Ramos and MUTU-I were sensitive to monoclonal antibodies (mAb) recognizing the Fc region of surface IgM (anti-Fc mu). Experiments using anti-Fc mu mAb (single or non-crossblocking pairs), polyclonal anti-mu Ab, and hyper-crosslinking with a secondary layer of Ab, showed that growth inhibition of B-cell lines was highly dependent on the extent of IgM crosslinking. This was confirmed by using Fab', F(ab')2 and F(ab')3 derivatives from anti-Fc mu mAb, where increasing valency caused corresponding increases in growth arrest and apoptosis, presumably as a result of more efficient BCR-crosslinking on the cell surface. The ability of a single mAb to induce growth arrest was highly dependent on epitope specificity, with mAb specific for the Fc region (C mu2-C mu4 domains) being much more effective than those recognizing the Fab region (anti-L chain, anti-Id and anti-Fd mu, or C mu1). Only when hyper-crosslinked with polyclonal anti-mouse IgG did the latter result in appreciable growth inhibition. Binding studies showed that these differences in function were not related to differences in the affinity, but probably related to intrinsic crosslinking capacity of mAb. (+info)
Characterization of an immunoglobin cDNA clone containing the variable and constant regions for the MOPC 21 kappa light chain.
Nucleotide sequence analysis and restriction endonuclease mapping have been used to characterize a cDNA copy of immunoglobulin MOPC 21 Kappa mRNA clones in the bacterial plasmid pMB9. Three regions of the inserted cDNA of plasmid pL21-1 have been sequenced and match the known protein sequence at amino acid residues 1-24, 128-138 and 171-179. With these sequences to provide absolute correlations between the restriction map and the structural gene sequence it has been possible to exactly deduce the positions of all 11 of the insert restriction sites mapped within the structural gene. The pL21-1 insert contains the complete variable and constant regions as well as parts of the 3' untranslated and polypeptide leader coding sequences. (+info)
Molecular mapping of influenza virus RNA polymerase by site-specific antibodies.
Influenza virus RNA polymerase with the subunit structure PB1-PB2-PA is involved in both transcription and replication of the RNA genome, including the unique cap-I-dependent RNase activity. To map the important domains for RNA polymerization, cap-I-dependent RNase, and cap-I-binding activity, we generated site-specific antibodies against overlapping 150-amino-acid peptides that cover each entire subunit. Monospecific antibodies against each subunit inhibited RNA synthesis in vitro. Those against PB1 and PB2 inhibited the cap-I-dependent RNase activity, but those against PB2 alone slightly inhibited the cap-I-binding activity. Antibodies against the N-terminal amino acids 1-159 of PB2 that overlap the PB1-binding site on PB2 and the C-terminal amino acids 501-617 of PA that overlap the putative nucleotide-binding site and PB1-binding site on PA inhibited RNA polymerizing activity as well as monospecific antibodies. Those against the N-terminal (amino acids 1-159); the central region (amino acids 305-559) of PB2, where a part of the cap-binding domain predicted previously is localized; the N-terminal (amino acids 1-222) of PB1; and amino acids 301-517 and 601-716 of PA inhibited the cap-I-dependent RNase activity. The cap-binding domain on PB2 could be mapped in amino acids 402-559, where one of the cap-binding domains mapped previously overlapped. (+info)
Distribution of B-cell epitopes on the pseudorabies virus glycoprotein B.
In order to map antigenically important regions of glycoprotein B (gB) of pseudorabies virus (PrV), a panel of recombinant fragments of gB expressed in E. coli and truncated fragments of gB generated by cleavage of purified native gB with trypsin and cyanogen bromide was analysed by using 26 monoclonal antibodies directed against gB. Three continuous epitopes were localized in the vicinity of the N terminus of gB, between amino acids (aa) 59 and 126. One continuous epitope mapped between residues 214 and 279. The residues involved in the assembly of eight discontinuous epitopes were located between aa 540 and 734. The constituents of two discontinuous epitopes were harboured in a segment encompassing aa 540-646. The clustering of continuous epitopes at the extreme N terminus of PrV gB and the locations of residues involved in the assembly of discontinuous epitopes of PrV gB are in good agreement with data on epitope locations in gB homologues from other herpesviruses. (+info)