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(1/190) New perspectives on biliary atresia.

An investigation into the aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of biliary atresia was carried out because the prognosis remains so poor.In an electron microscopical study no viral particles or viral inclusion bodies were seen, nor were any specific ultrastructural features observed. An animal experiment suggested that obstruction within the biliary tract of newborn rabbits could be produced by maternal intravenous injection of the bile acid lithocholic acid.A simple and atraumatic method of diagnosis was developed using(99) (m)Tc-labelled compounds which are excreted into bile. Two compounds, (99m)Tc-pyridoxylidene glutamate ((99m)Tc-PG) and (99m)Tc-dihydrothioctic acid ((99m)Tc-DHT) were first assessed in normal piglets and piglets with complete biliary obstruction. Intestinal imaging correlated with biliary tract patency, and the same correlation was found in jaundiced human adults, in whom the (99m)Tc-PG scan correctly determined biliary patency in 21 out of 24 cases. The (99m)Tc-PG scan compared well with liver biopsy and (131)I-Rose Bengal in the diagnosis of 11 infants with prolonged jaundice.A model of extrahepatic biliary atresia was developed in the newborn piglet so that different methods of bile drainage could be assessed. Priorities in biliary atresia lie in a better understanding of the aetiology and early diagnosis rather than in devising new bile drainage procedures.  (+info)

(2/190) Major HPB procedures must be undertaken in high volume quaternary centres?

BACKGROUND: Reports of better results at national referral centers than at low-volume community hospitals have prompted calls for regionalizing pancreaticoduodenectomy (the Whipple procedure). We examined the relationship between hospital volume and mortality with this procedure across all US hospitals. METHODS: Using information from the Medicare claims database, we performed a national cohort study of 7,229 Medicare patients more than 65 years old undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy between 1992 and 1995. We divided the study population into approximate quartiles according to the hospital's average annual volume of pancreaticoduodenectomies in Medicare patients: very low (<1/y), low (1-2/y), medium (2-5/y), and high (5+/y). Using multivariate logistic regression to account for potentially confounding patient characteristics, we examined the association between institutional volume and in-hospital mortality, our primary outcome measure. RESULTS: More than 50% of Medicare patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy received care at hospitals performing fewer than 2 such procedures per year. In-hospital mortality rates at these low- and very-low-volume hospitals were 3- to 4-fold higher than at high-volume hospitals (12% and 16%, respectively, vs. 4%, P<.001). Within the high-volume quartile, the 10 hospitals with the nation's highest volumes had lower mortality rates than the remaining high-volume centers (2.1% vs. 6.2%, P<.01). The strong association between institutional volume and mortality could not be attributed to patient case-mix differences or referral bias. CONCLUSIONS: Although volume-outcome relationships have been reported for many complex surgical procedures, hospital experience is particularly important with pancreaticoduodenectomy. Patients considering this procedure should be given the option of care at a high-volume referral center.  (+info)

(3/190) Ondansetron and droperidol in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

We have performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical study to assess the efficacy of ondansetron, droperidol, or both, in preventing postoperative emesis. We studied 242 patients undergoing biliary or gynaecological surgery under general anaesthesia. Shortly before induction of anaesthesia, patients received: saline i.v. (group I, n = 62); droperidol 2.5 mg i.v. (group 2, n = 60); ondansetron 4 mg i.v. (group 3, n = 57); or droperidol 2.5 mg with ondansetron 4 mg i.v. (group 4, n = 63). Nausea occurred in 45%, 37%, 32% and 29% (P = 0.234) and vomiting in 23%, 17%, 9% and 5% (P = 0.016) of patients in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively, during the first 24 h. Groups 2 and 4 had greater sedation scores than group 1 during the first 3 h (P < 0.01). We conclude that both droperidol and ondansetron showed a significant antiemetic effect, ondansetron was not significantly better than droperidol, and the combination of droperidol and ondansetron was better than droperidol but no better than ondansetron alone.  (+info)

(4/190) A surgical sabbatical in France.

During my stay in France I had the unique opportunity to meet surgical professors from all over the world and made many friends and contacts in the field of hepatobiliary surgery. Brittany is a beautiful province of France, having unique way of life and approach to social and societal problems. The cultural enrichment that I received from my year there will last a lifetime, as well the many fond memories of the people, the culinary delights and the spectacular seashore.  (+info)

(5/190) Endoscopic management of biliary leaks after T-tube removal in liver transplant recipients: nasobiliary drainage versus biliary stenting.

This study presents the long-term sequelae of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)-managed biliary leakage in patients who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) and compares the relative efficacy, safety, and charges of nasobiliary drainage (NBD) versus biliary stenting (BS). We identified all orthotopic liver transplant recipients from January 1, 1993, to December 31, 1997, who had undergone ERCP for biliary leakage. Clinical outcome and charges were calculated on an intention-to-treat basis according to initial endoscopic therapy. Of the 1,166 adult OLTs performed during the study period, 442 patients underwent elective T-tube removal. ERCP was attempted in 69 patients (16%) who developed biliary leakage after T-tube removal. Three patients (5%) in whom initial ERCP was unsuccessful underwent surgery. NBD and BS were used as primary therapy in 45 (68%) and 21 patients (32%), respectively. Three patients initially treated with NBD required reendoscopy or surgery compared with 6 patients initially treated with BS (P <.05). Although not statistically significant, there was a trend toward greater expense in the BS group compared with the NBD group. ERCP is a safe and effective method of managing biliary leakage after T-tube removal in orthotopic liver transplant recipients. However, our results suggest NBD is the preferred method because recurrent leaks were more common in patients treated initially with BS. With prompt use of ERCP, surgery is rarely needed for this complication of OLT.  (+info)

(6/190) Liver transplantation--1978.

The development of liver transplantation has been made difficult because of the enormous technical difficulties of the procedure and because the postoperative management in early cases was defective in many instances. With surgical and medical improvements, the prospects for success have markedly increased recently. The wider use of thoracic duct fistula as an adjuvant measure during the first 1 or 2 postoperative months is being explored.  (+info)

(7/190) Ezetimibe selectively inhibits intestinal cholesterol absorption in rodents in the presence and absence of exocrine pancreatic function.

1. Ezetimibe potently inhibits the transport of cholesterol across the intestinal wall, thereby reducing plasma cholesterol in preclinical animal models of hypercholesterolemia. The effect of ezetimibe on known absorptive processes was determined in the present studies. 2. Experiments were conducted in the hamster and/or rat to determine whether ezetimibe would affect the absorption of molecules other than free cholesterol, namely cholesteryl ester, triglyceride, ethinylestradiol, progesterone, vitamins A and D, and taurocholic acid. In addition, to determine whether exocrine pancreatic function is involved in the mechanism of action of ezetimibe, a biliary anastomosis model, which eliminates exocrine pancreatic function from the intestine while maintaining bile flow, was established in the rat. 3. Ezetimibe reduced plasma cholesterol and hepatic cholesterol accumulation in cholesterol-fed hamsters with an ED(50) of 0.04 mg kg(-1). Utilizing cholesteryl esters labelled on either the cholesterol or the fatty acid moiety, we demonstrated that ezetimibe did not affect cholesteryl ester hydrolysis and the absorption of fatty acid thus generated in both hamsters and rats. The free cholesterol from this hydrolysis, however, was not absorbed (92 - 96% inhibition) in the presence of ezetimibe. Eliminating pancreatic function in rats abolished hydrolysis of cholesteryl esters, but did not affect the ability of ezetimibe to block absorption of free cholesterol (-94%). Ezetimibe did not affect the absorption of triglyceride, ethinylestradiol, progesterone, vitamins A and D, and taurocholic acid in rats. 4. Ezetimibe is a potent inhibitor of intestinal free cholesterol absorption that does not require exocrine pancreatic function for activity. Ezetimibe does not affect the absorption of triglyceride as a pancreatic lipase inhibitor (Orlistat) would, nor does it affect the absorption of vitamin A, D or taurocholate, as a bile acid sequestrant (cholestyramine) would.  (+info)

(8/190) Hepatic artery angiography and embolization for hemobilia after hepatobiliary surgery.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of hepatic angiography and embolization in the diagnosis and treatment of hemobilia after hepatobiliary surgery. METHODS: Nine patients had upper gastrointestinal bleeding 7 days to 3 months after surgery. They underwent emergency hepatic artery angiography and were treated by embolization using Gelfoam particles only (8 patients) and Gelfoam particles plus microcoils (1 patient). RESULTS: Hepatic artery angiography revealed hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms in 3 patients, diffuse hemorrhage of the hepatic artery branches in 3, right hepatic artery-bile duct fistulas in 2, and hepatic artery-small intestine fistula in 1. Hemobilia was controlled with embolization in 7 patients, of whom 1 had recurrent bleeding 1 day after treatment. During the follow-up, 3 patients died of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Two patients whose hemorrhage could not be controlled due to technical reasons died several days later. CONCLUSION: When hemobilia after hepatobiliary surgery is suspected, patients should receive hepatic angiography as a first diagnostic procedure and be treated with minimally invasive procedure of selective embolization of the involved artery as soon as possible.  (+info)