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(1/338) Gallstones, cholecystectomy and risk of cancers of the liver, biliary tract and pancreas.

To examine the association between gallstones and cholecystectomy, we conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study in Denmark. Patients with a discharge diagnosis of gallstones from 1977 to 1989 were identified from the Danish National Registry of Patients and followed up for cancer occurrence until death or the end of 1993 by record linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Included in the cohort were 60 176 patients, with 471 450 person-years of follow-up. Cancer risks were estimated by standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) stratified by years of follow-up and by cholecystectomy status. Among patients without cholecystectomy, the risks at 5 or more years of follow-up were significantly elevated for cancers of liver (SIR = 2.0, CI = 1.2-3.1) and gallbladder (SIR = 2.7, CI = 1.5-4.4) and near unity for cancers of extrahepatic bile duct (SIR = 1.1), ampulla of Vater (SIR = 1.0) and pancreas (SIR = 1.1). The excess risk of liver cancer was seen only among patients with a history of hepatic disease. Among cholecystectomy patients, the risks at 5 or more years of follow-up declined for cancers of liver (SIR = 1.1) and extrahepatic bile duct (SIR = 0.7), but were elevated for cancers of ampulla of Vater (SIR = 2.0, CI = 1.0-3.7) and pancreas (SIR = 1.3, CI = 1.1-1.6). These findings confirm that gallstone disease increases the risk of gallbladder cancer, whereas cholecystectomy appears to increase the risk of cancers of ampulla of Vater and pancreas. Further research is needed to clarify the carcinogenic risks associated with gallstones and cholecystectomy and to define the mechanisms involved.  (+info)

(2/338) Cancer risks in BRCA2 mutation carriers.

BACKGROUND: Carriers of germline mutations in the BRCA2 gene are known to be at high risk of breast and ovarian cancers, but the risks of other cancers in mutation carriers are uncertain. We investigated these risks in 173 breast-ovarian cancer families with BRCA2 mutations identified at 20 centers in Europe and North America. METHODS: Other cancer occurrence was determined in a final cohort of 3728 individuals, among whom 681 persons had breast or ovarian cancer and 3047 persons either were known mutation carriers, were first-degree relatives of known mutation carriers, or were first-degree relatives of breast or ovarian cancer patients. Incidence rates were compared with population-specific incidence rates, and relative risks (RRs) to carriers, together with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were estimated by use of a maximum likelihood approach. Three hundred thirty-three other cancers occurred in this cohort. RESULTS: Statistically significant increases in risks were observed for prostate cancer (estimated RR = 4.65; 95% CI = 3.48-6.22), pancreatic cancer (RR = 3.51; 95% CI = 1. 87-6.58), gallbladder and bile duct cancer (RR = 4.97; 95% CI = 1. 50-16.52), stomach cancer (RR = 2.59; 95%CI = 1.46-4.61), and malignant melanoma (RR = 2.58; 95% CI = 1.28-5.17). The RR for prostate cancer for men below the age of 65 years was 7.33 (95% CI = 4.66-11.52). Among women who had already developed breast cancer, the cumulative risks of a second, contralateral breast cancer and of ovarian cancer by the age of 70 years were estimated to be 52.3% (95% CI = 41.7%-61.0%) and 15.9% (95% CI = 8.8%-22.5%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to the large risks of breast and ovarian cancers, BRCA2 mutations may be associated with increased risks of several other cancers.  (+info)

(3/338) Time-resolved immunofluorometric assay of trypsin-1 complexed with alpha(1)-antitrypsin in serum: increased immunoreactivity in patients with biliary tract cancer.

BACKGROUND: Increased serum concentrations of trypsin immunoreactivity occur in patients with biliary tract cancer. To characterize this trypsin, we developed a sensitive time-resolved immunofluorometric assay for trypsin-1 complexed with alpha(1)-antitrypsin (AAT) and studied the concentrations of this complex in sera from healthy individuals (n = 130) and patients with benign biliary disease (n = 32), biliary tract cancer (n = 17), pancreatic cancer (n = 27), and hepatocellular cancer (n = 12). METHODS: We used a trypsin-1-specific monoclonal antibody on the solid phase and a europium-labeled polyclonal antibody to AAT as tracer. The detection limit was 0.42 microgram/L. The validity of the trypsin-1-AAT test for detection of biliary tract cancer was compared with trypsin-2-AAT and CA19-9. RESULTS: Increased concentrations of trypsin-1-AAT (>33 microgram/L) were found in 76% of patients with biliary tract cancer, and the concentrations were significantly higher than in those with benign biliary disease (P <0. 0001). The median concentration of trypsin-1-AAT in serum from patients with biliary tract cancer was 3.7-fold higher than in healthy controls, 2.6-fold higher than in patients with benign biliary tract disease, 1.7-fold higher than in patients with pancreatic cancer, and 2.0-fold higher than in patients with hepatocellular cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Of the markers studied, trypsin-1-AAT had the largest area (0.83) under the receiver operating curve in differentiating biliary tract cancer from benign biliary tract disease. Our results suggest that trypsin-1-AAT is a new potential marker for biliary tract cancer.  (+info)

(4/338) Genetic detection for micrometastasis in lymph node of biliary tract carcinoma.

The presence of regional lymph node metastasis is one of the most significant poor-prognosis factors in patients with biliary tract carcinoma. To establish a sensitive reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay to detect micrometastases in lymph nodes of biliary tract carcinoma, we first investigated the optimal markers in biliary tract carcinoma. The expressions of the six candidates for a suitable RT-PCR marker [mammaglobin B, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin (CK) 20, prostate-specific antigen, and melanoma antigens (MAGE-1 and MAGE-3)] were evaluated in two bile duct cancer cell lines and human biliary tract carcinoma tissues. Of 32 carcinoma tissues, mammaglobin B, CEA, prostate-specific antigen, MAGE-1, MAGE-3, and CK 20 were expressed in 28 (88%), 26 (81%), 4 (13%), 5 (16%), 7 (22%), and 9 (28%), respectively. Mammaglobin B and CEA were considered to be good markers of the six candidates. We then examined 209 lymph nodes obtained from 15 patients with biliary tract carcinoma by RT-PCR assay using both mammaglobin B and CEA and compared the results with those of histological examination. All of 20 histologically positive lymph nodes for metastasis displayed the PCR product(s) of marker genes. Of 189 histologically negative nodes, 24 (13%) nodes expressed mammaglobin B and/or CEA mRNA, suggesting the presence of micrometastasis. Our findings suggest that mammaglobin B and CEA could be useful RT-PCR markers for the detection of lymph node micrometastases in biliary tract carcinomas. Our RT-PCR assay allows accurate clinical staging necessary for patient stratification with respect to adjuvant therapy after surgery.  (+info)

(5/338) Chemoprevention of biliary carcinogenesis in syrian hamsters by the novel carboxamide derivative IS-741 after initiation with N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP).

To elucidate the possible inhibitory effect of a novel carboxamide derivative (IS-741) on biliary carcinogenesis, Syrian hamsters were subjected to cholecystoduodenostomy and ligation of the distal end of the common duct, and then given a regular diet (group I) or a diet containing 200 p.p.m. of IS-741 (group II). All hamsters were subcutaneously injected with N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine until 10 weeks after surgery, and continued to feed on their respective dietary regimen until termination of the experiment at 16 weeks after surgery. Biliary adenocarcinomas were evaluated histologically. Non-cancerous and cancerous hepatobiliary tract tissues were analyzed for phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and the concentrations of prostaglandin (PG), i.e., prostaglandin E(2), 6-ketoprostaglandin F(1)alpha and thromboxane B(2). IS-741 significantly inhibited the development and multiplicity of hepatobiliary adenocarcinomas and reduced the proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling indices in non-cancerous hepatobiliary tissues, compared with group I. The anti-cancerous effect of IS-741 was associated with a significant inhibition of PLA(2) and MPO levels in non-cancerous tissues of the extrahepatic biliary tract and the liver, and in cancerous tissue of the liver. Furthermore, IS-741 reduced the production of PGs in non-cancerous hepatobiliary tissues, compared with group I. Although the precise mechanism of action of IS-741 in preventing biliary tumorigenesis remains to be elucidated, it is likely to be related to modulation of arachidonic acid metabolism and/or suppression of neutrophil accumulation.  (+info)

(6/338) Morphine plus bupivacaine vs. morphine peridural analgesia in abdominal surgery: the effects on postoperative course in major hepatobiliary surgery.

Anaesthesia and surgical procedures lead to a reduction of intestinal motility, and opioids may produce a postoperative ileus, that might delay postoperative feeding. The aim of this prospective randomised study is to test whether or not different kinds of epidural analgesia (Group A: morphine 0.0017 mg/kg/h and bupivacaine 0.125%-0.058 mg/kg/h; Group B: morphine alone 0.035 mg/kg/12h in the postoperative period) allow earlier postoperative enteral feeding, enhance intestinal motility a passage of flatus and help avoid complications, such as nausea, vomiting, ileus, diarrhoea, pneumonia or other infective diseases. We included in the study 60 patients (28 males and 32 females) with a mean age of 61.2 years (range 50-70) and with an ASA score of 2 or 3. All patients had hepato-biliary-pancreatic neoplasm and were candidates for major surgery. We compared two different pharmacological approaches, i.e., morphine plus bupivacaine (30 patients, Group A) versus morphine alone (30 patients, Group B). Each medication was administered by means of a thoracic epidural catheter for the control of postoperative pain. In the postoperative course we recorded every 6 hours peristaltic activity. We also noted morbidity (pneumonia, wound sepsis) and mortality. Effective peristalsis was present in all patients in Group A within the first six postoperative hours; in Group B, after 30 hours. Six patients in Group A had bowel motions in the first postoperative day, 11 in the second day, 10 in the third day and 3 in fourth day, while in Group B none in the first day, two in the second, 7 in the third, 15 in the fourth, and 6 in the fifth: the difference between the two groups was significant (p<0.05 in 1st, 2nd, 4th and 5th days). Pneumonia occurred in 2 patients of Group A, and in 10 of Group B (p < 0.05). We conclude that epidural analgesia with morphine plus bupivacaine allowed a move rapid return to normal gut activity and early enteral nutrition compared with epidural analgesia with morphine alone.  (+info)

(7/338) Historical cohort study of 10 109 men in the North American vinyl chloride industry, 1942-72: update of cancer mortality to 31 December 1995.

OBJECTIVES: To update and assess mortality from neoplasms to 31 December 1995 among 10 109 men employed in a job exposed to vinyl chloride for at least 1 year between 1942 and 1972 at any of 37 North American factories. Previous analyses indicated associations between employment in vinyl production and increased mortality risk from cancers of the liver and biliary tract, due to increased mortality from angiosarcoma of the liver, and brain cancer. METHODS: Standardised mortality ratio (SMR) analyses, overall and stratified by several work related variables, were conducted with United States and state reference rates. Cox's proportional hazards models and stratified log rank tests were used to further assess occupational factors. RESULTS: 895 of 3191 deaths (28%) were from malignant neoplasms, 505 since the previous update to the end of 1982. Mortality from all causes showed a deficit (SMR 83, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 80 to 86), whereas mortality from all cancers combined was similar to state referent rates. Mortality from cancers of the liver and biliary tract was clearly increased (SMR 359, 95% CI 284 to 446). Modest excesses of brain cancer (SMR 142, 95% CI 100 to 197) and cancer of connective and soft tissue (SMR 270, 95% CI 139 to 472) were found. Stratified SMR and Cox's proportional hazard analyses supported associations with age at first exposure, duration of exposure, and year of first exposure for cancers of the liver and soft tissues, but not the brain. CONCLUSIONS: Excess mortality risk from cancer of the liver and biliary tract, largely due to angiosarcoma, continues. Risk of mortality from brain cancer has attenuated, but its relation with exposure to vinyl chloride remains unclear. A potentially work related excess of deaths from cancer of connective and soft tissue was found for the first time, but was based on few cancers of assorted histology.  (+info)

(8/338) A necessary and sufficient condition of comparability for using standardized mortality ratio (SMR).

A necessary and sufficient condition of comparability for using SMR was studied mathematically by considering the equivalence between SMR and CMF, as CMF was a perfectly comparable index. This condition was expressed by either proportionality of mortality vectors or proportionality of projected person-years to the plane spanned by mortality vectors of reference and index groups. We could obtain another expression of the condition, in which affect of distortions were easily understood, which consist of three factors: distortion of proportionality of mortality, distortion of person-years and similarity of distortions. Our results were applied to study the mortality of biliary tract cancer in Ibaraki Prefecture. Places where absolute difference between CMF and SMR exceeds some criterion (say, 0.15) were Satomi, Ushiboiri, Nihari in males and Gozenyama, Suifu and Asahi in females. All three distortion indices exceeded their upper 95% percentiles in Satomi in males.  (+info)