(1/179) Clinical value of K-ras codon 12 analysis and endobiliary brush cytology for the diagnosis of malignant extrahepatic bile duct stenosis.

Extrahepatic biliary stenosis can be caused by benign and malignant disorders. In most cases, a tissue diagnosis is needed for optimal management of patients, but the sensitivity of biliary cytology for the diagnosis of a malignancy is relatively low. The additional diagnostic value of K-ras mutational analysis of endobiliary brush cytology was assessed. Endobiliary brush cytology specimens obtained during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography were prospectively collected from 312 consecutive patients with extrahepatic biliary stenosis. The results of conventional light microscopic cytology and K-ras codon 12 mutational analysis were compared and evaluated in view of the final diagnosis made by histological examination of the stenotic lesion and/or patient follow-up. The sensitivities of cytology and mutational analysis to detect malignancy were 36 and 42%, respectively. When both tests were combined, the sensitivity increased to 62%. The specificity of cytology was 98%, and the specificity of the mutational analysis and of both tests combined was 89%. Positive predictive values for cytology, mutational analysis, and both tests combined were 98, 92, and 94%, whereas the corresponding negative predictive values were 34, 34, and 44%, respectively. The sensitivity of K-ras mutational analysis was 63% for pancreatic carcinomas compared to 27% for bile duct, gallbladder, and ampullary carcinomas. K-ras mutational analysis can be considered supplementary to conventional light microscopy of endobiliary brush cytology to diagnose patients with malignant extrahepatic biliary stenosis, particularly in the case of pancreatic cancer. The presence of a K-ras codon 12 mutation in endobiliary brush cytology per se supports a clinical suspicion of malignancy, even when the conventional cytology is negative or equivocal.  (+info)

(2/179) Metachronous bile duct cancer in a patient surviving for a decade and undergoing curative surgery twice.

We report a 75-year-old woman with metachronous bile duct cancer who underwent curative resection twice and has survived for a decade. In 1989, she was admitted because her serum alkaline phosphatase level was elevated. Computed tomography (CT) showed a low-density mass, 2 cm in diameter, at the left hepatic duct and intrahepatic bile duct dilatation in the left lobe. We diagnosed the lesion as an intrahepatic bile duct cancer and performed extended left hepatic lobectomy with systematic lymph node dissection. The histological diagnosis was a well differentiated cholangiocellular carcinoma with hepatic hilar and celiac lymph node metastases (T1N2M0, Stage IVB). In 1996, she was re-admitted with obstructive jaundice. CT showed a slightly enhanced mass, 4 cm in diameter, in the pancreatic head. After reducing the jaundice by percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, pancreatoduodenectomy was performed. The histological diagnosis of this lesion was a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma originating from the intrapancreatic bile duct. Ten years after the first operation, she is leading a normal daily life with no cancer recurrence. These findings suggest that repeated curative surgery can result in a long-term survival of patients with metachronous bile duct cancer.  (+info)

(3/179) Partial hepatectomy and bile duct ligation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): histologic, immunohistochemical and enzyme histochemical characterization of hepatic regeneration and biliary hyperplasia.

Hepatic regeneration following partial hepatectomy (PH) and biliary hyperplasia subsequent to bile duct ligation (BDL) were characterized in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by light microscopy using routine and special (immunohistochemical and enzyme histochemical) stains. Both PH and BDL involved initial hypertrophy and hyperplasia of bile preductular epithelial cells (BPDECs). BPDECs are small oval cells that form junctional complexes with hepatocytes and bile ductular cells and are commonly found in hepatic tubules of teleost liver. Proliferating BPDECs transitioned through intermediate cell types before final differentiation into large basophilic hepatocytes (following PH) or biliary epithelial cells (after BDL). Normal BPDECs and hepatocytes were both negative for cytokeratin intermediate filaments in control fish when screened with the monoclonal antibody AE1/AE3. In contrast, hyperplastic BPDECs and their progeny (intermediate cells, immature hepatocytes, ductal epithelial cells) were all strongly cytokeratin positive. Cytokeratin expression was transient in newly differentiated hepatocytes (expression decreased as hepatocytes acquired characteristics consistent with full differentiation) but was permanent in biliary epithelial cells (expression was very strong in large mature ducts). BPDECs, intermediate cells, and immature ductal cells were also strongly positive for alkaline phosphatase following BDL. Chronology of histologic events and cytokeratin and enzyme expression all support the hypothesis that BPDECs possess the capacity to differentiate into either hepatocytes or biliary epithelial cells. Thus, BPDECs may be the teleost equivalent of a bipolar hepatic stem cell in mammals.  (+info)

(4/179) Postoperative bile duct strictures: management and outcome in the 1990s.

OBJECTIVE: To describe the management and outcome after surgical reconstruction of 156 patients with postoperative bile duct strictures managed in the 1990s. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The management of postoperative bile duct strictures and major bile duct injuries remains a challenge for even the most skilled biliary tract surgeon. The 1990s saw a dramatic increase in the incidence of bile duct strictures and injuries from the introduction and widespread use of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Although the management of these injuries and short-term outcome have been reported, long-term follow-up is limited. METHODS: Data were collected prospectively on 156 patients treated at the Johns Hopkins Hospital with major bile duct injuries or postoperative bile duct strictures between January 1990 and December 1999. With the exception of bile duct injuries discovered and repaired during surgery, all patients underwent preoperative percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and placement of transhepatic biliary catheters before surgical repair. Follow-up was conducted by medical record review or telephone interview during January 2000. RESULTS: Of the 156 patients undergoing surgical reconstruction, 142 had completed treatment with a mean follow-up of 57.5 months. Two patients died of reasons unrelated to biliary tract disease before the completion of treatment. Twelve patients (7.9%) had not completed treatment and still had biliary stents in place at the time of this report. Of patients who had completed treatment, 90. 8% were considered to have a successful outcome without the need for follow-up invasive, diagnos tic, or therapeutic interventional procedures. Patients with reconstruction after injury or stricture after laparoscopic cholecystectomy had a better overall outcome than patients whose postoperative stricture developed after other types of surgery. Presenting symptoms, number of stents, interval to referral, prior repair, and length of postoperative stenting were not significant predictors of outcome. Overall, a successful outcome, without the need for biliary stents, was obtained in 98% of patients, including those requiring a secondary procedure for recurrent stricture. CONCLUSIONS: Major bile duct injuries and postoperative bile duct strictures remain a considerable surgical challenge. Management with preoperative cholangiography to delineate the anatomy and placement of percutaneous biliary catheters, followed by surgical reconstruction with a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy, is associated with a successful outcome in up to 98% of patients.  (+info)

(5/179) Genetic alterations and growth pattern in biliary duct carcinomas: loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 5q bears a close relation with polypoid growth.

Biliary duct carcinomas (BDCs) are relatively rare and the carcinogenic mechanisms underlying their induction are poorly understood. There are two growth patterns, polypoid and non-polypoid infiltrative type, but little information is available concerning the relation between growth pattern and genetic alterations. A comparative study was therefore conducted to clarify if differences in genetic changes, including loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 5q, 9p, 17p, and 18q, and K-ras mutations exist between polypoid and non-polypoid infiltrative type BDCs. LOH analysis was performed using microsatellite markers and K-ras point mutations were analysed by dot blot hybridisation. The incidences of changes for polypoid and non-polypoid infiltrative types were 73% and 26% on 5q, 63% and 59% on 9p, 55% and 50% on 17p, and 20% and 18% on 18q, and 25% and 27% for K-ras mutations. Most importantly, we found the frequency of 5qLOH to be significantly higher with polypoid growth than in the non-polypoid infiltrative type (p<0.05), especially in extrahepatic duct carcinomas (p<0.05). The incidences of other genetic alterations (LOH at 9p, 17p, and 18q, and K-ras mutations) showed similar rates with both tumour types. The present data suggest that 5qLOH may have a close relation with polypoid growth in BDCs.  (+info)

(6/179) Is preventive resection of the extrahepatic bile duct necessary in cases of pancreaticobiliary maljunction without dilatation of the bile duct?

BACKGROUND: No consensus has been reached on whether preventive resection of the extrahepatic bile duct is necessary in cases of pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) without dilatation of the extrahepatic bile duct (undilated type). METHODS: Sixty-eight patients with PBM underwent corrective surgery and several clinical characteristics and pathological findings including K-ras point mutation were evaluated. RESULTS: Unlike dilated bile duct, none of the patients with undilated type duct had clinical symptoms in early childhood. In patients with either cystic or spindle type duct, amylase levels in the bile duct were >10(4) U/l, whereas those in patients with undilated type duct were <10(4) U/l. Postoperative scintigraphy of the biliary system of undilated type revealed no evidence of cholestasis. After surgery, eight patients with undilated type duct, in whom the bile duct had been preserved, had no further clinical symptoms and no evidence of malignancy. Bile duct tissue specimens revealed no hyperplasia, dysplasia or cancerous lesions and they had no K-ras mutation in undilated type. CONCLUSION: The results showed that there was little bile stasis, injury to the mucosa was mild and less genetic changes could be seen in patients with undilated type duct. Therefore, in patients without dilatation of bile duct and advanced cancer, cholecystectomy alone is sufficient.  (+info)

(7/179) Restrictive cardiomyopathy in a patient with extrahepatic biliary atresia.

The most commonly associated anomalies in patients with extrahepatic biliary atresia are cardiovascular, digestive and splenic defects. Of the cardiovascular anomalies, there are very few reports of biliary atresia with cardiomyopathy. We report the first case of a child with extrahepatic biliary atresia and restrictive cardiomyopathy. The patient was a 13-month-old boy diagnosed with extrahepatic biliary atresia at the age of 2 months, when he underwent laparotomy for definite diagnosis.Hepatic portoenterostomy was performed after confirmative cholangiogram. Recently, he developed severe cough and dyspnea, and his respiratory symptoms worsened. Chest radiograph showed cardiomegaly. Two- dimensional echocardiography showed marked biatrial enlargement. On M- mode echocardiogram, a slight increase in left ventricular dimension was seen in early diastole with a relatively good left ventricular function. Mitral inflow Doppler tracing showed an increased E-velocity (1.1 m/sec) with decreased deceleration time (75 m/sec), and increased E/A ratio (0.33). He was diagnosed as having restrictive cardiomyopathy with characteristic echocardiographic features.  (+info)

(8/179) Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study of ito cells (fat-storing cells) in response to extrahepatic bile duct ligation in broiler chickens.

The Ito cell (fat-storing cell) lies in perisinusoidal space of liver and has a variety of functions. We investigated the immunohistochemistry and ultrastructure of Ito cells in normal and cholestatic livers of broiler chickens. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that Ito cells expressed HHF35 muscle actin, vimentin, desmin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), chromogranin A and cytokeratins in normal livers. These cells were diffusely scattered throughout the lobules. Livers treated with extrahepatic bile duct ligation (BDL) showed cholestasis, fibrosis, proliferation of biliary ductules and Ito cells. The Ito cells were frequently found in fibrotic areas and were larger in size with more extensive immunoreactivity than those of normal livers. Ultrastructural study demonstrated that Ito cells were closely associated with the production of collagen fibers in BDL livers. These findings suggest that Ito cells actively react against hepatocytic injuries and play a major role in the hepatic fibrogenesis of cholestatic livers of chickens.  (+info)