Old Testament biblical references to tuberculosis.
Two probable references to tuberculosis are found in Old Testament books of the Bible dating to a time when the Israelites lived in Egypt, which is known from archeological evidence to be an area where tuberculosis was then prevalent. Other putative biblical references to tuberculosis are less credible. (+info)
Daniel: using the bible to teach quality improvement methods.
Most of what I need to know about clinical research methods, I learned from the Bible. (+info)
The kidneys in the Bible: what happened?
The kidneys, always used in the plural (kelayot), are mentioned more than 30 times in the Bible. In the Pentateuch, the kidneys are cited 11 times in the detailed instructions given for the sacrificial offering of animals at the altar. Whereas those instructions were for purification ceremonies at the Temple, sacrificial offerings were made subsequently in seeking divine intervention for the relief of medical problems. In the books of the Bible that follow the Pentateuch, mostly in Jeremiah and Psalms, the human kidneys are cited figuratively as the site of temperament, emotions, prudence, vigor, and wisdom. In five instances, they are mentioned as the organs examined by God to judge an individual. They are cited either before or after but always in conjunction with the heart as mirrors of the psyche of the person examined. There is also reference to the kidneys as the site of divine punishment for misdemeanors, committed or perceived, particularly in the book of Job, whose suffering and ailments are legendary. In the first vernacular versions of the Bible in English, the translators elected to use the term "reins" instead of kidneys in differentiating the metaphoric uses of human kidneys from that of their mention as anatomic organs of sacrificial animals burned at the altar. This initial effort at linguistic purity or gentility has progressed further in recent versions of the Bible, in which the reins are now replaced by the soul or the mind. The erosion may have begun in the centuries that followed the writing of the Bible, when recognition of the kidneys as excretory organs deprived them of the ancient aura of mysterious organs hidden deep in the body but accessible to the look of God. At approximately the same time, Greek analytical philosophy argued that the brain, which is never mentioned in the Bible, was the most divine and sacred part of the body. This argument gained ground in the past century, when the functions of the brain were elucidated, and ultimately established in the 1960s, when salvaging the kidneys for transplantation necessitated a change in the definition of death as irreversible brain function. It is ironic that advances in understanding kidney function and in nephrology that made kidney transplantation feasible may have contributed, albeit indirectly, to the gradual elimination of the metaphoric mention of human kidneys in the Bible. (+info)
Samson's suicide: psychopathology (Grossman) vs. heroism (Jabotinsky).
The biblical story of Samson may be understood at various levels and from different perspectives. Since the story of Samson in the Bible is sketchily drawn, the interpretations of the narrative are numerous. One version, according to David Grossman, a contemporary writer and liberal Israeli political activist, regards Samson critically, viewing him as a tormented individual who opts to end his life in order to end his suffering. Another version is that of Ze'ev Jabotinsky, a twentieth century author and nationalistic Jewish political activist, who regards Samson as a heroic figure exemplifying the ultimate Jewish hero who killed himself to help his people. While suicide is considered a tragic event, viewed as the outcome of an unstable state of mind from a psychopathological point of view, and a controversial issue in Judaism (as in other religions), there is value in examining how each of these authors explains the act. Since the personal and political opinions of the authors influenced their interpretations, the discussion will briefly expound on their biographies. A comparison between their two versions of the narrative will be made. A word of caution is introduced regarding the merits and demerits of artistic and creative analysis of the biblical narrative. (+info)
Waiting to be born: the ethical implications of the generation of "NUBorn" and "NUAge" mice from pre-pubertal ovarian tissue.
The alcoholic lung disease: historical background and clinical features.
SUMMARY: The purpose of this review article is to prove the damage that alcohol causes to the respiratory system. We will make a brief review of alcohols history in the course of the centuries till nowadays. The problem of addiction to alcohol (alcoholism) will be examined for several countries. Alcohol's metabolism is another topic to be discussed parallel to its pharmacological action. In addition, alcohol's impact on the respiratory system varies from damaging the mucociliary system to the regulation of breathing and from the sleep apnea syndrome to diffusion disorders. "Alcoholic lung disease" constitutes a syndrome despite the fact that the damage of the lung due to concurrent smoking and drug use is often indistinguishable. (+info)
Role of religion in cancer coping among African Americans: a qualitative examination.