(1/302) Binding partners for the myelin-associated glycoprotein of N2A neuroblastoma cells.
The myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) has been proposed to be important for the integrity of myelinated axons. For a better understanding of the interactions involved in the binding of MAG to neuronal axons, we performed this study to identify the binding partners for MAG on neuronal cells. Experiments with glycosylation inhibitors revealed that sialylated N-glycans of glycoproteins represent the major binding sites for MAG on the neuroblastoma cell line N2A. From extracts of [3H]glucosamine-labelled N2A cells several glycoproteins with molecular weights between 20 and 230 kDa were affinity-precipitated using immobilised MAG. The interactions of these proteins with MAG were sialic acid-dependent and specific for MAG. (+info)
(2/302) Polynucleotides. XLII1. Limited addition of 2'O-onitrobenzyl nucleotides to the 3'-end of ribooligonucleotide with polynucleotide phosphorylase.
2'-O-o-Nitrobenzyluridine, -cytidine and -adenosine were phosphorylated with phosphoryl chloride to the corresponding 5'-phosphates and led to 5'-diphosphates by the method of Moffatt and Khorana. These 2'-O-oNB-nucleoside 5'-diphosphates were incubated with a primer CpApA and polynucleotide phosphorylase in the presence of Mn2+. Tetranucleotides CpApApU, CpApApC and CpApApA were obtained after photosensitive removal of oNB groups in yields of 54-70%. (+info)
(3/302) O-linked glycans mediate apical sorting of human intestinal sucrase-isomaltase through association with lipid rafts.
The plasma membrane of polarised epithelial cells is characterised by two structurally and functionally different domains, the apical and basolateral domains. These domains contain distinct protein and lipid constituents that are sorted by specific signals to the correct surface domain . The best characterised apical sorting signal is that of glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) membrane anchors , although N-linked glycans on some secreted proteins  and O-linked glycans  also function as apical sorting signals. In the latter cases, however, the underlying sorting mechanisms remain obscure. Here, we have analysed the role of O-glycosylation in the apical sorting of sucrase-isomaltase (SI), a highly polarised N- and O-glycosylated intestinal enzyme, and the mechanisms underlying this process. Inhibition of O-glycosylation by benzyl-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosaminide (benzyl-GalNAc) was accompanied by a dramatic shift in the sorting of SI from the apical membrane to both membranes. The sorting mechanism of SI involves its association with sphingolipid- and cholesterol-rich membrane rafts because this association was eliminated when O-glycosylation was inhibited by benzyl-GaINAc. The results demonstrate for the first time that O-linked glycans mediate apical sorting through association with lipid rafts. (+info)
(4/302) Effects of ethyl and benzyl analogues of spermine on Escherichia coli peptidyltransferase activity, polyamine transport, and cellular growth.
Various ethyl and benzyl spermine analogues, including the anticancer agent N1,N12-bis(ethyl)spermine, were studied for their ability to affect the growth of cultured Escherichia coli cells, to inhibit [3H]putrescine and [3H]spermine uptake into cells, and to modulate the peptidyltransferase activity (EC 2. 3. 2. 12). Relative to other cell lines, growth of E. coli was uniquely insensitive to these analogues. Nevertheless, these analogues conferred similar modulation of in vitro protein synthesis and inhibition of [3H]putrescine and [3H]spermine uptake, as is seen in other cell types. Thus, both ethyl and benzyl analogues of spermine not only promote the formation and stabilization of the initiator ribosomal ternary complex, but they also have a sparing effect on the Mg2+ requirements. Also, in a complete cell-free protein-synthesizing system, these analogues at low concentrations stimulated peptide bond formation, whereas at higher concentrations, they inhibited the reaction. The ranking order for stimulation of peptide-bond formation by the analogues was N4,N9-dibenzylspermine > N4, N9-bis(ethyl)spermine congruent with N1-ethylspermine > N1, N12-bis(ethyl)spermine, whereas the order of analogue potency regarding the inhibitory effect was inverted, with inhibition constant values of 10, 3.1, 1.5, and 0.98 microM, respectively. Although the above analogues failed to interact with the putrescine-specific uptake system, they exhibited high affinity for the polyamine uptake system encoded by the potABCD operon. Despite this fact, none of the analogues could be internalized by the polyamine transport system, and therefore they could not influence the intracellular polyamine pools and growth of E. coli cells. (+info)
(5/302) Distribution of end-to-end distances of oligopeptides in solution as estimated by energy transfer.
A homologous series of oligopeptides each containing at its ends a donor and an acceptor of electronic excitation energy was synthesized by the solid-phase method. N-5-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-L-glutamine was the repeating unit, and peptides containing 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 of these amino-acid residues were prepared. The chromophores naphthalene and dansyl, which were used as donor and acceptor, respectively, fulfil the conditions necessary for energy transfer according to the Forster mechanism. A distance corresponding to 50% efficiency of energy transfer, tro = 22 plus or minus 1 A, was calculated. The kinetics of fluorescence decay of an oligomer containing the naphthalene chromophore only could be described precisely by a monoexponential function. In contrast, the kinetics of the decay curves of the fluorescence of the donor of all of the oligomers containing both donor and acceptor, as measured in viscous solution, deviated markedly from monoexponential behavior. The deviation was interpreted in terms of the great number of different conformations that the various molecules of each of the oligomers attain in solution, leading to characteristic end-to-end distribution functions between the donor and acceptor. Numerical adjustment of the parameters of some of the previously proposed expressions to describe the end-to-end distribution enabled the reconstruction of the kinetics of the fluorescence decay of the donor with great precision. The end-to-end distribution functions for the various oligopeptides were thus evaluated. (+info)
(6/302) The matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor BB-1101 prevents experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU).
EAU is characterized by breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier and extravasation of leucocytes into retinal tissue leading to destruction of photoreceptor cells. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) have been implicated in trafficking of cells into tissues, but their role in inflammatory eye disease is unclear. A synthetic MMP inhibitor, BB-1101, was administered subcutaneously, from either day 0 or day 7, to Lewis rats challenged with bovine S-antigen to induce EAU. When given up to day 14, BB-1101 reduced the incidence of disease and delayed the day of onset of clinical disease. When administered from day 7 until day 21, EAU was completely abrogated. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay showed an increase of both matrilysin (MMP-7), neutrophil collagenase (MMP-8) and macrophage metalloproteinase (MMP-12) in retinas from EAU animals compared with naive controls. These enzymes are produced by activated leucocytes and act on components of the basement membrane. These results therefore implicate these MMP as integral to the development of pathology in EAU. (+info)
(7/302) Soluble TNF-alpha receptors bind and neutralize over-expressed transmembrane TNF-alpha on macrophages, but do not inhibit its processing.
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is initially synthesized as a type II integral membrane protein (transmembrane TNF-alpha) after macrophage activation. In this study we have investigated some aspects of the regulation of expression and biological activity of transmembrane TNF-alpha by both soluble TNF-alpha receptors (sTNF-alphaR) and inhibitors of TNF-alpha processing. We show, using the technique of receptor-mediated ligand precipitation (RMLP), that a dimeric construct of the type I sTNF-alphaR binds to transmembrane TNF-alpha, expressed on the mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7, under cell culture conditions. This interaction between sTNF-alphaR and transmembrane TNF-alpha does not prevent processing and release of soluble TNF-alpha. A specific hydroxamic acid-based inhibitor of processing, BB1101 (British Biotech), was found to increase the total cellular levels of whole-cell, 26-kDa, precursor TNF-alpha by 2.2-fold. However, the inhibitor increased the levels of precursor TNF-alpha present solely on the cell surface (i.e., transmembrane TNF-alpha) by 5.1- to 7.5-fold. This increase in the levels of transmembrane TNF-alpha on the activated human monocytoid cell line mono mac 6 was associated with a similar (6.7-fold) increase in TNF-alpha-mediated cytotoxicity toward the human adenocarcinoma cell line Colo 205, which is sensitive only to the transmembrane form of TNF-alpha. Mono mac 6 cells, expressing transmembrane TNF-alpha, were found to be killing the Colo 205 target cells through apoptosis. This cytotoxicity could be neutralized by pre-incubating the mono mac 6 cells with either sTNF-alphaR or polyclonal anti-TNF-alpha serum. (+info)
(8/302) Combined effects of dissociable and undissociable local anesthetics upon ATP-induced firefly bioluminescence.
Combined effects of two drugs present simultaneously are usually expressed as summation, synergism or potentiation, and antagonism. When the sum of the effects of each drug present separately equals the combined effect of the two drugs present simultaneously, the action is called additive or summation. However, the expected value of the sum of each effect of drugs present alone has not been well defined. In this report, the thearetical value of the expected sum of each effect of two inhibitors is given and a graphical method is presented to visualize summation, synergism, and antagonism. The inhibitory effects of a dissociable local anesthetic, tetracaine, and an undissociable local anesthetic, benzyl alcohol, upon a soluble firefly luminescent system were analyzed according to the above theory. The results clearly indicate that the action of these two classes of local anesthetics is pure additive or summation. (+info)