Oxidative polymerization of ribonuclease A by lignin peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Role of veratryl alcohol in polymer oxidation.
The mechanism of lignin peroxidase (LiP) was examined using bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase) as a polymeric lignin model substrate. SDS/PAGE analysis demonstrates that an RNase dimer is the major product of the LiP-catalyzed oxidation of this protein. Fluorescence spectroscopy and amino acid analyses indicate that RNase dimer formation is due to the LiP-catalyzed oxidation of Tyr residues to Tyr radicals, followed by intermolecular radical coupling. The LiP-catalyzed polymerization of RNase in strictly dependent on the presence of veratryl alcohol (VA). In the presence of 100 microM H2O2, relatively low concentrations of RNase and VA, together but not individually, can protect LiP from H2O2 inactivation. The presence of RNase strongly inhibits VA oxidation to veratraldehyde by LiP; whereas the presence of VA does not inhibit RNase oxidation by LiP. Stopped-flow and rapid-scan spectroscopy demonstrate that the reduction of LiP compound I (LiPI) to the native enzyme by RNase occurs via two single-electron steps. At pH 3.0, the reduction of LiPI by RNase obeys second-order kinetics with a rate constant of 4.7 x 10(4) M-1.s-1, compared to the second-order VA oxidation rate constant of 3.7 x 10(5) M-1.s-1. The reduction of LiP compound II (LiPII) by RNase also follows second-order kinetics with a rate constant of 1.1 x 10(4) M-1.s-1, compared to the first-order rate constant for LiPII reduction by VA. When the reductions of LiPI and LiPIi are conducted in the presence of both VA and RNase, the rate constants are essentially identical to those obtained with VA alone. These results suggest that VA is oxidized by LiP to its cation radical which, while still in its binding site, oxidizes RNase. (+info)
Growth of Azospirillum irakense KBC1 on the aryl beta-glucoside salicin requires either salA or salB.
The rhizosphere nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum irakense KBC1 is able to grow on pectin and beta-glucosides such as cellobiose, arbutin, and salicin. Two adjacent genes, salA and salB, conferring beta-glucosidase activity to Escherichia coli, have been identified in a cosmid library of A. irakense DNA. The SalA and SalB enzymes preferentially hydrolyzed aryl beta-glucosides. A Delta(salA-salB) A. irakense mutant was not able to grow on salicin but could still utilize arbutin, cellobiose, and glucose for growth. This mutant could be complemented by either salA or salB, suggesting functional redundancy of these genes in salicin utilization. In contrast to this functional homology, the SalA and SalB proteins, members of family 3 of the glycosyl hydrolases, show a low degree of amino acid similarity. Unlike SalA, the SalB protein exhibits an atypical truncated C-terminal region. We propose that SalA and SalB are representatives of the AB and AB' subfamilies, respectively, in glycosyl hydrolase family 3. This is the first genetic implication of this beta-glucosidase family in the utilization of beta-glucosides for microbial growth. (+info)
Catabolite control of Escherichia coli regulatory protein BglG activity by antagonistically acting phosphorylations.
In bacteria various sugars are taken up and concomitantly phosphorylated by sugar-specific enzymes II (EII) of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). The phosphoryl groups are donated by the phosphocarrier protein HPr. BglG, the positively acting regulatory protein of the Escherichia coli bgl (beta-glucoside utilization) operon, is known to be negatively regulated by reversible phosphorylation catalyzed by the membrane spanning beta-glucoside-specific EIIBgl. Here we present evidence that in addition BglG must be phosphorylated by HPr at a distinct site to gain activity. Our data suggest that this second, shortcut route of phosphorylation is used to monitor the state of the various PTS sugar availabilities in order to hierarchically tune expression of the bgl operon in a physiologically meaningful way. Thus, the PTS may represent a highly integrated signal transduction network in carbon catabolite control. (+info)
In vitro studies on the initial reactions of anaerobic ethylbenzene mineralization.
Anaerobic mineralization of ethylbenzene by the denitrifying bacterium Azoarcus sp. strain EB1 was recently shown to be initiated by dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to 1-phenylethanol. 1-Phenylethanol is converted to benzoate (benzoyl coenzyme A) via acetophenone as transient intermediate. We developed in vitro assays to examine ethylbenzene dehydrogenase and 1-phenylethanol dehydrogenase activities in cell extracts of this strain. With p-benzoquinone as the electron acceptor, cell extracts of Azoarcus sp. strain EB1 catalyzed ethylbenzene oxidation at a specific rate of 10 nmol min(-1) [mg of protein](-1) and an apparent K(m) for ethylbenzene of approximately 60 microM. The membrane-associated ethylbenzene dehydrogenase activity was found to oxidize 4-fluoroethylbenzene and propylbenzene but was unable to transform 4-chloro-ethylbenzene, the ethyltoluenes, and styrene. Enzymatic ethylbenzene oxidation was stereospecific, with (S)-(-)-1-phenylethanol being the only enantiomer detected by chiral high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis. Moreover, cell extracts catalyzed the oxidation of (S)-(-)-1-phenylethanol but not of (R)-(+)-1-phenylethanol to acetophenone. When cell extracts were dialyzed, (S)-(-)-1-phenylethanol oxidation occurred only in the presence of NAD(+), suggesting that NAD(+) is the physiological electron acceptor of 1-phenylethanol dehydrogenase. Both ethylbenzene dehydrogenase and 1-phenylethanol dehydrogenase activities were present in Azoarcus sp. strain EB1 cells that were grown anaerobically on ethylbenzene, 1-phenylethanol, and acetophenone, but these activities were absent in benzoate-grown cells. (+info)
Protective effect of FR168888, a new Na+/H+ exchange inhibitor, on ischemia and reperfusion-induced arrhythmia and myocardial infarction in rats: in comparison with other cardioprotective compounds.
We have studied the effects of FR168888 (5-hydroxymethyl-3-(pyrrol-1-yl)benzoylguanidine methanesulfonate), a new Na+/H+ exchange inhibitor, on ischemia and reperfusion-induced arrhythmia and myocardial infarction in anesthetized rats and compared them with those of other cardioprotective compounds. FR168888 had a potent inhibitory effect on Na+/H+ exchange of rat lymphocytes acidified with Na+-propionate with a Ki value of 6.4 nM. Pretreatment with FR168888 (0.032-0.32 mg/kg, i.v.) reduced or completely abolished the ventricular fibrillation (VF) induced by reperfusion after 5 min of regional ischemia, while lidocaine, a class I antiarrhythmic agent, showed less effect against VF as compared with FR168888. The size of myocardial infarction induced by 60-min ischemia and 60-min reperfusion was attenuated by FR168888 dose-dependently (1.0-10 mg/kg, i.v.), and ventricular tachycardia and VF were significantly reduced during the ischemic period. In contrast, propranolol and diltiazem did not show such protective effects on myocardial infarct size. In addition, FR168888 did not change hemodynamic parameters in rats. These results indicate that FR168888 has a strong inhibitory effect on Na+/H+ exchange and that treatment with FR168888 can protect the heart from arrhythmia and myocardial cell death in ischemic and reperfused situations. (+info)
Veratryl alcohol-mediated oxidation of isoeugenyl acetate by lignin peroxidase.
The mechanism of the veratryl alcohol (VA)-mediated oxidation of isoeugenyl acetate (IEA) by lignin peroxidase, and the subsequent spontaneous Calpha-Cbeta cleavage of IEA to vanillyl acetate were studied. IEA oxidation only occurred in the presence of VA. It probably did not bind to lignin peroxidase as evidenced by an unaffected Km for VA in the presence of IEA, and by the fact that a 10-fold molar excess of the unreactive IEA counterpart, eugenyl acetate, did not affect the IEA oxidation rate. IEA was very efficient in recycling VA. Up to 34 mol of IEA were oxidized per mol VA. Formation of the predominant VA oxidation product, veratraldehyde, was postponed until IEA was almost completely oxidized. Together these findings suggest that IEA was oxidized by VA.+ rather than directly by lignin peroxidase. Thus, VA functioned as a redox mediator during IEA oxidation which is remarkable considering the high calculated ionization potential of 8.81 eV. Regardless of the presence of O2, approximately 2 mol of IEA were consumed per mol H2O2, which indicated that IEA was enzymatically oxidized by one electron to the putative radical cation (IEA.+). After formation of IEA.+, a series of O2-dependent chemical reactions were responsible for Calpha-Cbeta cleavage to the major oxidation product vanillyl acetate, as evidenced by the observation that an N2 atmosphere did not inhibit IEA oxidation, but almost completely inhibited vanillyl acetate formation. GC-MS analyses revealed that under an air atmosphere 1-(4'-acetoxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-2-propanone, 1-(4'-acetoxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-1-hydroxy-2-propanone, and 1-(4'-acetoxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-2-hydroxy-1-propanone were also formed. Formation of the latter two was diminished under an N2 atmosphere. (+info)
(Z)-3-hexenyl and trans-linalool 3,7-oxide beta-primeverosides isolated as aroma precursors from leaves of a green tea cultivar.
6-O-beta-D-Xylopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosides (beta-primeverosides) of (Z)-3-hexenol and trans-linalool 3,7-oxide were newly isolated from fresh leaves of a tea cultivar (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis cv. Yabukita). In addition, the already identified beta-primeverosides of benzyl alcohol, methyl salicylate, and trans-linalool 3,6-oxide from an oolong tea cultivar were isolated from the Yabukita cultivar. It was confirmed that all aglycones of the linalool oxide glycosides isolated here were of the optically active S-form by chiral GC after enzymatic hydrolysis with glycosidase. (+info)
Combined effects of dissociable and undissociable local anesthetics upon ATP-induced firefly bioluminescence.
Combined effects of two drugs present simultaneously are usually expressed as summation, synergism or potentiation, and antagonism. When the sum of the effects of each drug present separately equals the combined effect of the two drugs present simultaneously, the action is called additive or summation. However, the expected value of the sum of each effect of drugs present alone has not been well defined. In this report, the thearetical value of the expected sum of each effect of two inhibitors is given and a graphical method is presented to visualize summation, synergism, and antagonism. The inhibitory effects of a dissociable local anesthetic, tetracaine, and an undissociable local anesthetic, benzyl alcohol, upon a soluble firefly luminescent system were analyzed according to the above theory. The results clearly indicate that the action of these two classes of local anesthetics is pure additive or summation. (+info)