Demethylation capacity of human fetal adrenal mitochondrial cytochrome P-450 in vitro.
AIM: To explore the capacity and characteristics of adrenal mitochondria to metabolize xenobiotics in vitro in human fetus. METHODS: Subcellular fractions of fetal adrenal were prepared by differential centrifugation. Mitochondrial P-450 system was proved by spectral analyses and SDS-PAGE. The formaldehyde formation contents were measured with Nash reagent. RESULTS: The erythromycin N-demethylation linearly increased in the protein concentration (1-4 mg)- and incubation time (10-30 min)-dependent manners. A typical concentration-effect relationship appeared with erythromycin 0.067-1 mmol.L-1 and a positive correlation (r = 0.641, P < 0.05) existed between erythromycin N-demethylation and gestation months. The N-demethylation values (nmol.s-1/g protein) of erythromycin (2.7 +/- 0.8), benzfetamine (1.1 +/- 0.5), and aminophenazone (0.9 +/- 0.4) in mitochondria were 89% (P > 0.05), 162% (P < 0.01), and 62% (P < 0.01), respectively, of those in microsomes. There was correlation between mitochondria and microsomes in the N-demethylation of erythromycin (r = 0.708, P < 0.05) and benzfetamine (r = 0.707, P < 0.05). Troleandomycin stimulated erythromycin N-demethylation in adrenal mitochondria as well as in adrenal and liver microsomes in vitro. CONCLUSION: Fetal adrenal mitochondria, with multiple P-450 isoforms and greater capacity of demethylation, play a role in drug-metabolism during fetal development. (+info)
Metabolic production of amphetamine following multidose administration of clobenzorex.
The interpretation of urine drug-testing results can have important forensic and legal implications. In particular, drugs that are metabolized to amphetamine or methamphetamine or both pose significant concerns. In this study, clobenzorex, an anorectic drug that is metabolized to d-amphetamine, was administered to five subjects. Each subject took 30 mg daily for seven days, and individual urine samples were collected ad lib for 14 days beginning on the first day the drug was administered. Urine pH, specific gravity, and creatinine values were determined for each sample. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to determine the excretion profile of amphetamine and clobenzorex using a standard procedure for amphetamines with additional monitoring of ions at m/z 118, 125, and 364 for the detection of clobenzorex. Peak concentrations of amphetamine were found at 82 to 168 h after the first dose and ranged from approximately 2900 to 4700 ng/mL amphetamine. The use of a regioisomer (3-Cl-benzylamphetamine) as internal standard allowed for accurate quantitation of the parent drug. Peak concentrations of clobenzorex were found at 50 to 120 h after the first dose and ranged from approximately 8 to 47 ng/mL clobenzorex. However, in many samples, clobenzorex was not detected at all. This analysis revealed that the metabolite, (amphetamine) is present in much higher concentrations than the parent compound, clobenzorex. Yet even at peak amphetamine concentrations, the parent was not always detected (limit of detection 1 ng/mL). Thus, in the interpretation of amphetamine-positive drug-testing results, the absence of clobenzorex in the urine sample does not exclude the possibility of its use. (+info)
Multiple forms of cytochrome P-450 in phenobarbital- and 3-methylcholanthrene-treated rats. Separation and spectral properties.
Multiple forms of liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 isolated from immature male rats pretreated with phenobarbital or 3-methylcholanthrene are described. Afraction of low specific content (Fraction A. 1.7 TO 4.0 nmol of cytochrome P-450 per mg of protein) and a fraction substantially purified (Fraction B, 9.0 TO 11.0 NMOL of cytochrome P-450 per mg of protein) are obtained by DEAE-cellulose chromatography of a partially purified cytochrome P-450 preparation in the presence of Emulgen 911. Shifts in the absorption maxima in the CO-reduced and ethyl isocyanide difference spectra are observed in the fractions derived from 3-methylcholanthrene-treated rats. The fractions derived from phenobarbital-treated rats exhibit different 455:430 ratios and pH intercepts in the ethyl isocyanide difference spectra. The absolute oxidized spectra and n-octylamine binding spectra at room temperature and EPR analysis at the temperature of liquid helium characterize all the fractions, except the Fraction A from 3-methylcholanthrene-treated rats, as low spin ferric hemeproteins. The A hemeprotein fractions from both 3-methylcholanthrene- and phenobarbital-treated rats have poor catalytic activity for the metabolism of benzphentamine and 3,4-benzo-[a]pyrene in comparison to the B hemeprotein fractions which may be due to the presence of a high concentration of Emulgen 911 in the A fractions. However, the presence of Emulgen 911 cannot account for the spectral differences among the fractions. (+info)
Purified liver microsomal cytochrome P-450. Separation and characterization of multiple forms.
During the purification of rabbit liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 (P-450LM), evidence was obtained for the occurrence of at least four distinct forms. These were distinguished by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate in the presence or absence of mercaptoethanol and were shown to have characteristic spectra as the reduced carbon monoxide complexes. They are designated by their relative electrophoretic mobilities. P-450LM2, which was purified to apparent homogeneity, is induced by phenobarbital and has a subunit molecular weight of 50,000. P-450LM4, which was also extensively purified, is induced by beta-naphthoflavone and has a molecular weight of 54,000. P-450LM1,7, which is induced neither by phenobarbital nor beta-naphthoflavone, is a mixtureMIXTURE OF ABOUT EQUAL AMOUNTS OF TWO FORMS WITH MOLECULAR WEIGHTS OF 47,000 AND 60,000 RESPECTIVELY. Some preparations were obtained containing primarily P-450LM1 or P-450LM7. Benzphetamine, ethylmorphine, and p-nitroanisole are hydroxylated preferentially by P-450LM2, and benzpyrene by P-450LM1,7. Biphenyl is hydroxylated in both positions 2 and 4 by all of the preparations, but the latter position is strongly favored by the action of P-450LM2. Testosterone is hydroxylated primarily in position 16alpha by P-450LM2 and in position 6beta by P-450LM1,7. Although the occurrence of additional forms of the cytochrome with highly similar electrophoretic behavior is not ruled out, it appears that the presence of these forms differing in subunit molecular weight may account for the variety of catalytic activities attributed to this pigment of liver microsomes. (+info)
Evidence supporting the interaction of CYP2B4 and CYP1A2 in microsomal preparations.
Recent studies have demonstrated that the catalytic behavior of one cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme can be influenced by the presence of a second P450. This effect has been observed using reconstituted systems containing reductase, CYP2B4, and CYP1A2, primarily at subsaturating reductase. Addition of 1A2 caused a 75% inhibition of CYP2B4-dependent 7-pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylation (PROD). Conversely, CYP2B4-dependent benzphetamine (bzp) demethylation did not exhibit this response after CYP1A2 addition. Addition of CYP2B4 to a reconstituted system containing reductase and CYP1A2 caused synergism of CYP1A2-dependent 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylation (EROD). This behavior was consistent with the formation of heteromeric CYP1A2-CYP2B4 complexes with altered catalytic properties. Although such responses have been documented in reconstituted systems, they have not been demonstrated in microsomal preparations. The goal of the present study was to determine whether such interactions were observed in rabbit liver microsomes. In an effort to detect such changes, we took advantage of the differential effect of CYP1A2 on CYP2B4-selective PROD and bzp metabolism. Rabbits were treated with phenobarbital (PB), beta-naphthoflavone (betaNF), and both PB + betaNF-conditions that enrich microsomes with CYP2B4, CYP1A2, or both enzymes, respectively. Benzphetamine demethylation activity was equivalently elevated in both the PB and the PB + betaNF groups, consistent with the induction of CYP2B4 in both groups. In contrast, PROD activity in the PB + betaNF group was less than 25% of that found in the PB-treated rabbits. These results demonstrate that the interactions observed in reconstituted systems are not an artifact of reconstitution but are observed under the more natural conditions of the microsomal membrane. (+info)
Effects of vinyl chloride exposures to rats pretreated with phenobarbital.
Male rats were exposed to 10 consecutive days, 6 hr/day, to vinyl chloride vapors at an average concentration of 13,500 ppm. The exposed rats were divided into three groups of eight rats each: one group was pretreated with 3-methylcholanthrene, one group was pretreated with phenobarbital, and the third group received no treatment. Half the animals in each group were sacrificed 18 hr after the last exposure and half were sacrificed 4 days later. In a second experiment, four rats pretreated with phenobarbital were exposed to vinyl chloride vapors at a concentration of 17,300 ppm for 2 days and sacrificed about 9 A.M. on the third day. In both experiments control animals, also treated with phenobarbital or 3-methylcholanthrene, were exposed to air only. At the time of sacrifice, lungs, kidneys, spleen, heart, and a small piece of liver from each animal were preserved for histological examination. The remainder of the liver was processed for assay of microsomal enzyme activity. The following parameters were investigated: growth rate, organ weights, morphological changes, and both benzphetamine-N-demethylase activity and cytochrome P-450 content of microsomes prepared from the livers. In both experiments the only marked difference noted in any group was a decrease in the growth rate of the animals exposed to vinyl chloride and treated with phenobarbital. This decreased growth rate was particularly apparent on the third day of the vinyl chloride exposures. Occasional morphological changes were also seen in the livers of the animals treated with phenobarbital and exposed to vinyl chloride. (+info)
Evidence for the presence of active cytochrome P450 systems in Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium adult worms.
Extracts of the adult worms of both Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium can metabolise some typical P450 substrates but to differing degrees. S. mansoni worm extracts displayed a approximately 12-fold higher specific activity for an aminopyrine substrate than rat liver microsomes. At 4 mM substrate concentration the demethylation reaction with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) (5 nmol HCHO/mg protein/min) was only half that of rat liver microsomes, whereas in extracts of S. haematobium, no detectable activity was found towards NDMA. Using ethylmorphine as substrate the demethylation activity of S. mansoni extracts (1.82 nmol HCHO/mg protein/min) was 5.5-fold lower than that of rat liver microsomes. Benzphetamine demethylase activity was also readily detectable in S. mansoni worm extracts at 6.79 nmol HCHO/mg protein/min compared with 10.20 nmol HCHO/mg protein/min in the case of rat liver microsomes. When aniline was used as substrate, surprisingly, no activity was found in worm extracts of either S. mansoni or S. haematobium, whereas rat liver microsomes showed high activity towards this amine. The anti-P450 2E1 and 2B1/2 cross-reacted with both worm homogenates and gave a specific band corresponding to a protein of molecular weight of approximately 50.0 kDa. A study with anti-P450 IVA antibody revealed that while this protein was strongly expressed in S. haematobium worm extracts, no immunoreactivity was observed with extracts of S. mansoni. Immunoblotting analyses with anti-P450 IIIA and P450 1A1 did not detect immunoreactive protein in either S. mansoni or S. haematobium. (+info)
Metabolism of N,N',N"-triethylenethiophosphoramide by CYP2B1 and CYP2B6 results in the inactivation of both isoforms by two distinct mechanisms.
The anticancer drug N,N,"N"-triethylenethiophosphoramide (tTEPA) inactivated CYP2B6 and CYP2B1 in the reconstituted system in a time-, concentration-, and NADPH-dependent manner indicative of mechanism-based inactivation. The KI value for the inactivation of CYP2B1 was 38 microM, the kinact was 0.3 min(-1), and the t1/2 value was 2.5 min. Spectral carbon monoxide (CO) binding and high-performance liquid chromatography heme studies of the tTEPA-inactivated CYP2B1 suggest that the loss in the enzymatic activity was primarily due to the binding of a reactive tTEPA intermediate to the 2B1 apoprotein. Inactivation by tTEPA in the presence of 7-ethoxycoumarin, an alternate substrate, reduced the rate of inactivation of CYP2B1. Incubations with tTEPA and NADPH resulted in greater than 90% loss in the 7-ethoxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)coumarin O-deethylation and testosterone hydroxylation activity of CYP2B1. In contrast, benzphetamine metabolism was significantly less inhibited (47%). CYP2B6 was inactivated by tTEPA with a KI value of 50 microM, a k inact value of 0.1 min(-1), and a t1/2 value of 14 min. However, unlike CYP2B1, the tTEPA-inactivated human isoform showed losses in the cytochrome P450 (P450) CO spectrum, the pyridine hemochrome spectrum, and in the amount of native heme that were comparable with the loss in the 7-EFC and benzphetamine activity, suggesting that activity loss was brought about by a tTEPA-reactive intermediate damaging the CYP2B6 heme. CYP2B6 could only be protected from the tTEPA-dependent inactivation by the 2B6-specific substrate bupropion but not by other substrates of CYP2B such as benzphetamine, testosterone, or 7-ethoxycoumarin. The data indicate that tTEPA metabolism by these two 2B isoforms results in inactivation of the P450s by two distinct mechanisms. (+info)