F 15845 inhibits persistent sodium current in the heart and prevents angina in animal models. (9/16)

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3-(R)-[3-(2-methoxyphenylthio-2-(S)-methylpropyl]amino-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,5-benzoxa thiepine bromhydrate (F 15845) prevents ischemia-induced heart remodeling by reduction of the intracellular Na+ overload. (10/16)

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Ex vivo comparison of microbicide efficacies for preventing HIV-1 genomic integration in intraepithelial vaginal cells. (11/16)

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Selective inhibition of persistent sodium current by F 15845 prevents ischaemia-induced arrhythmias. (12/16)

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F 15845, a new blocker of the persistent sodium current prevents consequences of hypoxia in rat femoral artery. (13/16)

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The anti-overactive bladder activity of KW-7158 is mediated by blocking equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1. (14/16)

KW-7158 is a novel therapeutic candidate for treating overactive bladder (OAB) with a unique mode of action: suppression of sensory afferent nerves. However, the molecular target of this compound remains unknown. We herein report the identification of the KW-7158 target to be equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 (ENT1). A membrane protein expression library of ca. 7000 genes was expressed in a dorsal root ganglion cell line, which we had previously generated, and subjected to screening for binding with a fluorescent derivative that retains high binding activity to the target. The screening revealed that only cells transfected with an ENT1 expression vector exhibited significant binding. We next performed [(3)H]KW-7158 binding experiments and an adenosine influx assay and found that KW-7158 binds to and inhibits ENT1. To further demonstrate the pharmacological relevance, we evaluated other known ENT1 inhibitors (nitrobenzylthioinosine, dipyridamole, draflazine) in an in vitro bladder strip contraction assay and the rat spinal cord injury OAB model. We found that all of the inhibitors exhibited anti-OAB activities, of which the potencies were comparable to that of adenosine influx inhibition in vitro. These studies demonstrated that the pharmacological target of KW-7158 is ENT1, at least in the rat OAB model. Our results will aid understanding of the precise mechanism of action of this drug and may also shed new light on the use of the adenosine pathway for the treatment of OAB.  (+info)

The pharmacological properties of Y-23684, a benzodiazepine receptor partial agonist. (15/16)

1. The pharmacological properties of a benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) partial agonist, Y-23684 were investigated in comparison with those of diazepam, a conventional BZR full agonist. 2. Y-23684 and diazepam showed high and selective affinity for the BZR with Ki values of 41 and 5.8 nM, respectively. 3. In contrast to diazepam, variability was noted in the anticonvulsive potency of Y-23684 depending on convulsants (bicuculline, pentylenetetrazol and maximal electrical shock). Y-23684 produced the most potent protective effect against bicuculline in rats and mice with ED50S of 1.3 and 1.2 mg kg-1, respectively. 4. In rat conflict models (Geller-Seifter and water-lick tests), Y-23684 produced an antipunishment action at doses 2-4 times lower than diazepam. In contrast to diazepam, Y-23684 did not affect unpunished responding up to 50 mg kg-1 in the Geller-Seifter test. 5. In other rat models of anxiety (social interaction and elevated plus-maze tests), Y-23684 was as efficacious as and ten fold more potent than diazepam. In a mouse model of anxiety (exploration (light/dark box) test), Y-23684 was as efficacious and two fold less potent as diazepam. In these paradigms, Y-23684 showed a selective anxiolytic profile over a wide dose-range without loss of efficacy and sedative action. 6. The impairment of motor coordination (rotarod) and potentiation of CNS depressants (ethanol and hexobarbitone) by Y-23684 was much weaker than that of diazepam. 7. These results suggest that Y-23684 would be a potent and selective anxiolytic agent in man with less side-effects than conventional BZ-anxiolytics.  (+info)

Differential properties of type I and type II benzodiazepine receptors in mammalian CNS neurones. (16/16)

1. The effects of benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) partial agonists, Y-23684 and CL218,872, were compared with its full agonist, diazepam, on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced Cl- current (ICl) in acutely dissociated rat cerebral cortex (CTX), cerebellar Purkinje (CPJ) and spinal ventral horn (SVH) neurones, by the whole-cell mode patch-clamp technique. 2. The GABA-induced responses were essentially the same in both SVH and CPJ neurones, but the KD value of the GABA response in CTX neurone was lower than those in the other two brain regions. 3. Enhancement of the GABA response by the two partial agonists was about one-third of that by diazepam in the SVH neurones (where type II subtype of BZR, BZ2, is predominant), whereas these partial agonists potentiated the GABA response as much as diazepam in CPJ neurones (where the type I subtype of BZR, BZ1, is predominant). In CTX neurones where both type I and II variants are expressed, the augmentation ratio of the GABA response by diazepam was between the values in CPJ and SVH neurones. 4. In concentration-response relationships of BZR partial agonists, the threshold concentrations, KD values and maximal augmentation ratio of the GABA response were similar in all CTX, CPJ and SVH neurones. Also, in all preparations, the threshold concentration and KD values of diazepam action were 10 fold less than those induced by partial agonists. 5. All BZR agonists shifted the concentration-response relationship for GABA to the left without changing the maximum current amplitude, indicating that activation of both BZ1 and BZ2 increase the affinity of the GABAA receptor for GABA. 6. The results are important in clarifying the mechanism of anxiety and might explain the anxioselectivity of BZR partial agonists.  (+info)