Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors induce phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent stimulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade in neurons. (9/267)

Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors may play a key role during developmental neuroplasticity, learning and memory, and neuronal loss in a number of neuropathologies. However, the intracellular signaling pathways used by AMPA receptors during such processes are not fully understood. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is an attractive target because it has been shown to be involved in gene expression, synaptic plasticity, and neuronal stress. Using primary cultures of mouse striatal neurons and a phosphospecific MAPK antibody we addressed whether AMPA receptors can activate the MAPK cascade. We found that in the presence of cyclothiazide, AMPA caused a robust and direct (no involvement of NMDA receptors or L-type voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) channels) Ca(2+)-dependent activation of MAPK through MAPK kinase (MEK). This activation was blocked by GYKI 53655, a noncompetitive selective antagonist of AMPA receptors. Probing the mechanism of this activation revealed an essential role for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) and the involvement of a pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G-protein, a Src family protein tyrosine kinase, and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II. Similarly, kainate activated MAPK in a PI 3-kinase-dependent manner. AMPA receptor-evoked neuronal death and arachidonic acid mobilization did not appear to involve signaling through the MAPK pathway. However, AMPA receptor stimulation led to a Ca(2+)-dependent phosphorylation of the nuclear transcription factor CREB, which could be prevented by inhibitors of MEK or PI 3-kinase. Our results indicate that Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors transduce signals from the cell surface to the nucleus of neurons through a PI 3-kinase-dependent activation of MAPK. This novel pathway may play a pivotal role in regulating synaptic plasticity in the striatum.  (+info)

AMPA-preferring glutamate receptors in cochlear physiology of adult guinea-pig. (10/267)

1. The present study was designed to determine which glutamate (Glu) receptors are involved in excitatory neurotransmission at the first auditory synapse between the inner hair cells and the spiral ganglion neurons. 2. The Glu receptors present at the membrane level were investigated on isolated spiral ganglion neuron somata from guinea-pigs by whole-cell voltage-clamp measurements. Glu and AMPA induced a fast onset inward current that was rapidly desensitized, while kainate induced only a non-desensitizing, steady-state current. NMDA induced no detectable current. 3. To further discriminate between the AMPA and kainate receptors present, we used the receptor-specific desensitization blockers, cyclothiazide and concanavalin A. While no effect was observed with concanavalin A, cyclothiazide greatly enhanced the Glu-, AMPA- and kainate-induced steady-state currents and potentiated Glu-induced membrane depolarization. 4. To extrapolate the results obtained from the somata to the events occurring in situ at the dendrites, the effects of these drugs were evaluated in vivo. Cyclothiazide reversibly increased spontaneous activity of single auditory nerve fibres, while concanavalin A had no effect, suggesting that the functional Glu receptors on the somata may be the same as those at the dendrites. 5. The combination of a moderate-level sound together with cyclothiazide increased and subsequently abolished the spontaneous and the sound-evoked activity of the auditory nerve fibres. Histological examination revealed destruction of the dendrites, suggesting that cyclothiazide potentiates sound-induced Glu excitotoxicity via AMPA receptors. 6. Our results reveal that fast synaptic transmission in the cochlea is mainly mediated by desensitizing AMPA receptors.  (+info)

Rapid screening for diuretic doping agents in urine by C60-assisted laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. (11/267)

This study describes a matrix-assisted laser-desorption-ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry for rapid screening of 12 diuretics in spiked urine. C60 is used as the matrix for MALDI. Diuretics are directly analyzed by C60-MALDI without previous derivatization. The fact that most diuretic molecules contain sulfate groups accounts for why anions of the molecules can be easily desorbed and ionized in MALDI. Using C60 as the matrix is advantageous because of the low background in the low mass range on the negative MALDI mass spectrum. A clear mass window between m/z 200 and 600 in negative ion mode is also obtained. Only a minimum amount of the sample (< 1 microL) is necessary to perform the analysis. The detection limit of diuretics is approximately 0.1-1 microg/mL.  (+info)

Substrate turnover by transporters curtails synaptic glutamate transients. (12/267)

Although inhibitors of glutamate transport prolong synaptic currents at many glutamate synapses, the cause of the current prolongation is unclear. Transport inhibitors may prolong synaptic currents by simply interfering with synaptic glutamate binding to transporters, by inhibiting substrate translocation, or by promoting accumulation of ambient glutamate, which may act cooperatively at receptors with synaptic glutamate. We show that reversal of the membrane potential of astrocytes surrounding the synapse prolongs synaptic currents but does not decrease the apparent affinity of transporters or significantly alter glutamate-dependent kinetics of macroscopic transporter currents in excised membrane patches. Positive membrane potentials do not affect binding of a nontransported glutamate analog, nor do positive membrane potentials alter the number of transporters available to bind analog. We also test the hypothesis that glutamate accumulation during uptake inhibition by transporter substrates is the direct cause of synaptic current prolongations. Transporter substrates elevate ambient glutamate near synapses by fostering reverse transport of endogenous glutamate. However, increases in ambient glutamate cannot account for the prolongations of synaptic currents, because a nonsubstrate transport inhibitor does not foster reverse uptake yet it prolongs synaptic currents. Moreover, exogenous glutamate does not mimic synaptic current prolongations induced by substrate inhibitors. These results provide strong support for a major role of substrate translocation in determining the time course of the glutamate concentration transient at excitatory synapses.  (+info)

Glutamate transporters contribute to the time course of synaptic transmission in cerebellar granule cells. (13/267)

Transporters are thought to assist in the termination of synaptic transmission at some synapses by removing neurotransmitter from the synapse. To investigate the role of glutamate transport in shaping the time course of excitatory transmission at the mossy fiber-granule cell synapse, the effects of transport impairment were studied using whole-cell voltage- and current-clamp recordings in slices of rat cerebellum. Impairment of transport by L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate (PDC) produced a prolongation of the decay of the AMPA receptor-mediated current after a repetitive stimulus, as well as prolongation of single stimulus-evoked EPSCs when AMPA receptor desensitization was blocked. PDC also produced a prolongation of both single and repetitive-evoked NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs. Enzymatic degradation of extracellular glutamate did not reverse the PDC-induced prolongation of AMPA receptor-mediated current after a repetitive stimulus, suggesting that transporter binding sites participate in limiting glutamate spillover. In current-clamp recordings, PDC dramatically increased the total area of the EPSP and the burst duration evoked by single and repetitive stimuli. These data indicate that glutamate transporters play a significant role in sculpting the time course of synaptic transmission at granule cell synapses, most likely by limiting the extent of glutamate spillover. The contribution of transporters is particularly striking during repetitive stimulus trains at physiologically relevant frequencies. Hence, the structural arrangement of the glomerulus may enhance the contribution of transporters to information processing by limiting the extent of glutamate spillover between adjacent synapses.  (+info)

Safety of losartan in hypertensive patients with thiazide-induced hyperuricemia. (14/267)

BACKGROUND: Losartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, has been shown to decrease serum uric acid and to increase urinary excretion of uric acid. METHODS: To determine if this effect can increase the risk of acute urate nephropathy, 63 hypertensive patients with thiazide-induced asymptomatic hyperuricemia (serum uric acid 7.0 to 12.0 mg/dl) were randomized double-blind to losartan 50 mg every day (q.d.), losartan 50 mg plus hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 50 mg q.d., HCTZ 50 mg q.d., or placebo for three weeks. To potentiate the risk of crystal formation, patients received a 2 g/kg protein diet one day prior to each clinic visit on days 0 (baseline), 1, 7, and 21. RESULTS: Adverse events typically associated with acute urate nephropathy, for example, flank pain, hematuria, or increased blood urea nitrogen/creatinine, were not reported. Uric acid excretion and urine pH increased four and six hours after losartan on day 1 compared with day 0. Dihydrogen urate, the primary risk factor for crystal formation, decreased at four and six hours on day 1 compared with day 0 associated with the concurrent rise in urine pH. Day 7 and 21 changes, compared with day 0, in uric acid excretion rate, urine pH, and dihydrogen urate with losartan were comparable to day 1 results but were not statistically significant. Serum uric acid was significantly reduced after 21 days of therapy with losartan. CONCLUSION: Losartan decreased serum uric acid and increased uric acid excretion without increasing urinary dihydrogen urate, the primary risk factor for acute urate nephropathy, during 21 days of dosing in hypertensive patients with thiazide-induced hyperuricemia.  (+info)

AMPA-kainate subtypes of glutamate receptor in rat cerebral microglia. (15/267)

Microglial cells were isolated from rat cerebral cortex, and kainate (KA)-induced inward current was measured at a holding potential of -40 or -60 mV. 6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2, 3-dione-sensitive KA-induced currents increased with increasing KA concentration. The half-activation concentration and Hill coefficient were 3.3 x 10(-4) M and 1.4, respectively. Although glutamate (Glu) and AMPA-induced currents were much smaller than that induced by KA, all KA-, Glu-, and AMPA-induced currents were greatly and consistently enhanced in the presence of cyclothiazide (CTZ). On the other hand, KA-induced currents were much less sensitive to potentiation by concanavain A, suggesting that the KA-induced response in rat microglia is predominantly mediated by AMPA-preferring receptors (subunits GluR1-GluR4). The current-voltage relationships of KA- and AMPA-CTZ-induced currents were almost linear or slightly outward rectifying. The reversal potential of KA-induced current shifted to negative potentials (from +4 to -40 mV) on switching from high Na(+) to high Ca(2+) external solution, indicating the low Ca(2+) permeability through the AMPA-KA receptor channel complexes. AMPA-KA receptor expression was studied with immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-PCR, from which GluR2, GluR3, GluR4, and GluR5 were identified. Lower levels of mRNAs for GluR7 and KA-1-KA-2 were also indicated. Finally, activation of these receptors with KA or Glu significantly enhanced the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. These results suggest that primary cultured rat microglia possesses functional Glu receptor, which may mediate neuron to microglia communication in the physiological and pathological states.  (+info)

Glutamate and GABA activate different receptors and Cl(-) conductances in crab peptide-secretory neurons. (16/267)

Responses to rapid application of glutamic acid (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), 0.01-3 mM, were recorded by whole-cell patch clamp of cultured crab (Cardisoma carnifex) X-organ neurons. Responses peaked within 200 ms. Both Glu and GABA currents had reversal potentials that followed the Nernst Cl(-) potential when [Cl(-)](i) was varied. A Boltzmann fit to the normalized, averaged dose-response curve for Glu indicated an EC(50) of 0.15 mM and a Hill coefficient of 1.05. Rapid (t(1/2) approximately 1 s) desensitization occurred during Glu but not GABA application that required >2 min for recovery. Desensitization was unaffected by concanavalin A or cyclothiazide. N-methyl-D-aspartate, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, quisqualate, and kainate (to 1 mM) were ineffective, nor were Glu responses influenced by glycine (1 microM) or Mg(2+) (0-26 mM). Glu effects were imitated by ibotenic acid (0.1 mM). The following support the conclusion that Glu and GABA act on different receptors: 1) responses sum; 2) desensitization to Glu or ibotenic acid did not diminish GABA responses; 3) the Cl(-)-channel blockers picrotoxin and niflumic acid (0.5 mM) inhibited Glu responses by approximately 90 and 80% but GABA responses by approximately 50 and 20%; and 4) polyvinylpyrrolydone-25 (2 mM in normal crab saline) eliminated Glu responses but left GABA responses unaltered. Thus crab secretory neurons have separate receptors responsive to Glu and to GABA, both probably ionotropic, and mediating Cl(-) conductance increases. In its responses and pharmacology, this crustacean Glu receptor resembles Cl(-)-permeable Glu receptors previously described in invertebrates and differs from cation-permeable Glu receptors of vertebrates and invertebrates.  (+info)