Comparison of three methods for detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in a low-prevalence population. (25/36)

Four hundred fecal specimens which had been received for routine ova and parasite examination were concentrated by Formalin-ether sedimentation. Sediments were examined as saline and iodine-stained wet preparations and were stained with rhodamine-auramine O and a commercially available monoclonal fluorescent-antibody stain for oocysts of Cryptosporidium species. Examination with the fluorescent stains detected cryptosporidia in both positive specimens (0.5% prevalence), and routine direct wet-preparation examination detected cryptosporidia in one of them. Detection of only low numbers of positive specimens in our nonrisk population argues against routine use of specific and expensive stain reagents.  (+info)

Binding of ligands to horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase lacking zinc ions at the active sites. (26/36)

The zinc-deficient enzyme binds the fluorescence probes for the enzyme substrate pocket (auramine O, 13-ethylberberine, chlorprothixene and acridine orange) more tightly than the native enzyme, whereas 1-anilinonaphthalene 8-sulphonic acid is bound with comparable affinity. The use of fluorescence probes as reporter ligands revealed that the formation of binary complexes between the zinc-deficient enzyme and aldehydes is possible (as with the native enzyme) and confirmed an increased affinity of coenzymes to the modified enzyme. The absence of catalytic zinc ions brings about a loss of the essential stabilization effect in simultaneous NADH and aldehyde binding to liver alcohol dehydrogenase. 2,2'-Bipyridine, which chelates the active-site zinc ion in the native enzyme, is bound rather loosely to the same site as aldehydes, auramine O and ethylberberine in the case of the zinc-depleted enzyme. The stopped-flow measurements showed that the pH dependence of auramine O and ethylberberine binding to native and zinc-depleted enzyme is essentially similar. These data are compatible with the presence of ionizable groups in the surroundings of the bound probes. This group might be either His-67, bound to the zinc ion, or the zinc-liganding water molecule in the case of the native enzyme (pK close to 9), or the free His-67 residue in the case of the zinc-deficient enzyme (pK about 8).  (+info)

A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for alpha 1-acid glycoprotein in serum and urine samples. (27/36)

In this solid-phase competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for alpha 1-acid glycoprotein in serum or urine, antiserum to human alpha 1-acid glycoprotein is incubated with solid-phase-bound alpha 1-acid glycoprotein in the presence of standard or sample. Incubation with second antibody labeled with alkaline phosphatase then follows, before development with substrate. Results obtained correlate well with a fluorescent assay involving the dye Auramine O (r = 0.953) and with radial immunodiffusion (r = 0.921). The present assay covers the range 0.2 to 5 mg/L and 16 samples take 2.5 h to complete. This assay is useful for measuring concentrations of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein in serum and also in urine, for which other assay methods are not sufficiently sensitive.  (+info)

Dissociation of outer-sphere water is rate-limiting for the binding of ligands in the active site of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase. (28/36)

The association of imidazole and auramine O to native horse-liver alcohol dehydrogenase [Zn(II)LADH] and active-site specifically cobalt(II)-substituted horse-liver alcohol dehydrogenase [Co(II)LADH], respectively, has been investigated. In all cases [except imidazole binding to Zn(II)LADH in the presence of auramine O] the association rates approached an upper limit (kmax). The kmax values were compared for the metal ligands imidazole (monodentate), 1,10-phenanthroline and 2,2'-bipyridine (bidentate; see also the preceding paper), and for auramine O which does not coordinate to the catalytic metal ion. Independent of the large differences in their structure and metal-bonding capability, all these compounds exhibit common, maximum, limiting rate constants of about 60 s-1 and 200 s-1 for Co(II)LADH and Zn(II)LADH, respectively. These results demonstrate that kmax is strongly dependent on the catalytic metal ion but not on the ligand. The absence of spectral changes in the d-d transitions of the catalytic Co(II) ion upon auramine O binding to Co(II)LADH indicates that the rate-limiting step is not accompanied by a major conformational change. Finally, it is concluded that reactions in the inner coordination sphere of the catalytic metal ion (i.e. the metal-bound water molecule) are not responsible for the step characterized by kmax. We propose the rate-limiting step to consist of the dissociation of one or several water molecules from the second coordination sphere of the catalytic metal ion in the active site of LADH in its open conformation.  (+info)

Evaluation of a dual-staining method for acid-fast bacilli. (29/36)

A dual-staining procedure for acid-fast bacilli was found to have poor correlation with the Ziehl-Neelsen and auramine-rhodamine staining techniques.  (+info)

Comparison of machine and manual staining of direct smears for acid-fast bacilli by fluorescence microscopy. (30/36)

Comparisons were made in Lusaka and in London between manual staining and staining in an automatic machine with auramine-phenol of direct smears of sputum and other types of specimen for acid-fast bacilli. No evidence was obtained of carry-over of acid-fast bacilli from positive to negative smears during machine staining. There was improved contrast between bacilli and the background in smears prepared with the machine.  (+info)

Immobilization-dependent fluorescence of colchicine. (31/36)

Colchicine fluoresces when bound to tubulin but not in water, dioxane, or benzene. The basis of the fluorescence has now been investigated. Colchicine fluoresces in higher alcohols and shows a blue shift as a function of chain length. Glycerol produces a higher fluorescence efficiency and a further blue shift. Plots of 1/fluorescence versus T/eta yield straight lines for both alcohols and glycerol/water mixtures. Fluorescence in glycerol/dimethyl sulfoxide mixtures, in which the dielectric constant remains unchanged, varies as a function of solvent viscosity. Even highly nonpolar solvents such as dioxane require a threshold viscosity for fluorescence to occur. When solvent polarity was decreased at constant viscosity, there was also an enhancement of colchicine fluorescence, but this effect appeared to be smaller than that obtained with increasing viscosity. Immobilization by covalent attachment of desacetylcolchicine to thyroglobulin, serum albumin, or lysozyme also promotes fluorescence from the drug. By contrast, the highly rigid analogue of colchicine, imerubine, fluoresces in water and is unaffected by viscosity changes. We concluded that a major contribution to colchicine fluorescence stems from immobilization of colchicine in the site and that this response to immobilization depends, in part, on the partially flexible nature of the drug. Since certain other flexible molecules such as auramine O, reduced flavines, and diarylalkanes also require increased viscosity or binding to macromolecules to fluoresce at room temperature, we propose that immobilization-enhanced fluorescence may be more common than heretofore believed.  (+info)

The binding of Ca2+ to actin monomer is monitored by the fluorescence of actin-bound auramine O. (32/36)

The fluorescence of the cation auramine O was substantially enhanced by the presence of actin monomer. Titrations of this fluorescence enhancement indicated that actin monomer had two auramine O binding sites, each with a dissociation constant of approx. 20 microM. Calcium ions had no effect on the number of actin monomer-bound auramine O molecules or on the dissociation constant for that interaction. However, calcium ions increased the maximum change of fluorescence that occurs when actin monomer was fully saturated with auramine O. This effect of calcium was saturable and yielded a Ca2+ dissociation constant of 1.6 mM. It was concluded that auramine O bound to sites on actin monomer and independently monitored the binding of Ca2+ ion(s) to other site(s) on actin monomer. Further, the magnitude of the Ca2+ dissociation constant suggested that this Ca2+-binding site may be representative of the multiple bivalent cation-binding sites on actin monomer which are thought to be directly involved in actin polymerization. However, the exact relationship between these sites remains unclear.  (+info)